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From its historic campus to its prestigious alumni, Harvard has built a reputation that speaks for itself.Founded in 1636, Harvard boasts one of the lowest university acceptance rates in the world, second only to Stanford.
Last year, Harvard College (the undergraduate school) drew over 39,000 applicants; of that number, just around 5 12 Sep 2017 - Deakin University's Harvard style referencing guide. Unlike many other styles, there is no single authority on Harvard style. Before using this guide, please Sometimes you may have to combine elements from more than one section in this guide to determine the correct referencing format. The Harvard .Last year, Harvard College (the undergraduate school) drew over 39,000 applicants; of that number, just around 5.
2% were accepted to join the Class of 2021.Given these stats, it’s no wonder that Harvard emphasizes its application supplement in the admissions process.After asking students to input their extracurricular activities and recommendation letters, Harvard’s application concludes with a supplement essay.Because Harvard’s prompt is so open-ended, students every year struggle with what to write to put their application over the edge of acceptance.
Luckily, you have come to the right place.Here is CollegeVine’s comprehensive guide on how to tackle the Harvard University supplemental essay for the 2017-18 cycle.Prompts for Harvard’s 2017-18 Application SupplementYou may wish to include an additional essay if you feel that the college application forms do not provide sufficient opportunity to convey important information about yourself or your accomplishments.You may write on a topic of your choice, or you may choose from one of the following topics: First: Is the Harvard essay optional? Each year, students are confused by Harvard’s assertion that its essay is optional.
To clear the air, at CollegeVine, we advise our students to take every opportunity available to showcase themselves on their applications.
In fact, after surveying over 200 members of the Harvard Class of 2017, we discovered that ~86% of accepted students opted to write the optional essay.Read more about why you should write the optional Harvard supplement essay.Tips for Your Harvard Application Right away, you may have noticed that the Harvard essay doesn’t have a specific word count.While in theory that means you could submit a 57-page dissertation as your Harvard supplement, in practice what we’ve seen is that most successful Harvard essays tend to be anywhere from 500-700 words.A good guideline to follow is that your essay should be about a page long when written in 12-point Times New Roman font, single-spaced.
If you are writing this essay completely from scratch for Harvard, an important guideline to use in framing your essay is that it should substantially differ from your Common App essay in terms of content (obviously), personality traits developed, and even style/tone.This essay is supposed to add something completely new to your app — a totally different angle — so it’s best to go for a full 180, or an essay that adds shock factor.For example, if your application is heavily themed around research and your Common App essay describes your obsession with biology research and how it has shaped who you’ve become today, then a supplemental essay about how you give haircuts to help raise money for charity can be an unexpected way to develop your personality outside of academic/professional environments.The essay would use your passion as an organizing tool to reflect on your interesting experiences in pursuing an unusual hobby, as well as highlighting your involvement in your community in a very unique way.Another example of a 180 is one in which your Activities List is full of leadership positions (perhaps you are heavily involved in MUN or debate), but your essay illuminates your insecurities with getting up in front of a room full of people or managing others — this can be a candid way to humanize yourself for readers.
Ultimately, the goal is to add unexpected depth to an application that otherwise “makes sense.” If your app makes too much sense, it will be harder to remember than if your app raises eyebrows and causes adcoms to say, “Huh, that’s pretty cool.”highly, highly recommended way to distinguish yourself.To give admissions officers a well-rounded, authentic picture of you, use this essay to highlight new attributes about yourself, different from those highlighted in your Common Application Essay.This helps readers better picture you on their campus, which is always a plus.
For any school-specific prompt, you must make sure the essay accomplishes three key points:Says something about you – The point of this essay is to work in conjunction with the rest of your application to paint a more complete picture of you as a candidate.Stories of growth, maturation, and lessons learned can distinguish you in a genuine way from other applicants in the eyes of admissions officers.“Shows not tells” – If you choose to write about a topic, for example, how cooking has had an impact on your life, be sure to remove any doubt of your sincerity.Use real examples!Demonstrates fit – Harvard will actively seek students that not only meet qualifications but contribute to the school’s culture.
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Demonstrate why you would differentiate and enhance Harvard’s campus by taking the time in your essay to link your personal experiences and qualities to Harvard’s community.
A bit about Harvard’s culture: Harvard encourages an environment of diverse thought and a global outlook.Among the biggest priorities of Harvard College is to build future leaders and innovators that will change the world .Among the biggest priorities of Harvard College is to build future leaders and innovators that will change the world.
Harvard encourages its students to be well-rounded and driven, ready to take on a rapidly changing globe.Ask yourself: What types of internship opportunities, research projects, curriculum styles, and activities within Harvard interest me? If you don’t have a prospective concentration yet (remember, Harvard students have “concentrations” and not “majors”), you should still explore your potential interests when researching the university The Formatting & Submission area of this site will give you details related to the particular layout you need to follow, but first, here is a general overview: to be thoroughly familiar with all of Harvard Extension School's regulations involving plagiarism, the proper use of sources, and the preparation of academic papers..Ask yourself: What types of internship opportunities, research projects, curriculum styles, and activities within Harvard interest me? If you don’t have a prospective concentration yet (remember, Harvard students have “concentrations” and not “majors”), you should still explore your potential interests when researching the university.If the research points you gather align with your essay topic, feel free to mention them, and, more importantly, demonstrate why they fit you!Harvard’s Cultural Quirks A few key points to think about when writing this essay (considering it’s for Harvard).
First, the school tends to value community involvement/passion development over pure academic success abaleatherdoctor.com/essay/consumer-law.php.First, the school tends to value community involvement/passion development over pure academic success.Second, you want to try to convey some sort of curiosity to Harvard — whether that curiosity is academic, intellectual, extracurricular, or philosophical.Harvard students, for the most part, are really passionate about something; you want to convey how you will also contribute to that pool.Finally, the university specifically looks for genuinely good people.Expressing a sense of citizenship or regard for humanity in the essay is a strong plus for the Harvard adcom.
Writing the Essays Unusual circumstances in your life.Although the prompt mentions the word “unusual,” your circumstances do not have to be one of a kind.As long as your essay shows who you are and the ways in which your unusual circumstances have influenced you, then you will be on your way to answering this prompt effectively.The second part — “the ways in which your circumstances have influenced you” — in particular is key; while taking the time to explain your unique circumstances is important to beget a full understanding of what happened, it is even more critical that you link your experience to who you have become today.For this prompt, be specific in terms of how your experience changed your outlook.
For example, if you choose to write about how you moved 13 times over the past 17 years, don’t just plainly state that changing residencies repeatedly throughout high school changed many aspects of your life.Express and focus on what specifically shifted in your relationships, perspective, and family life as a result of your nomadic lifestyle, and share anecdotes to show what changed.Details are key — the more you can include, the more your essay will come to life.It is important to note that the goal of this essay should not be to gain sympathy in the form of an acceptance letter.While you are definitely allowed to tell a sad story in your essay, the main takeaway from your writing should be your personal strengths and qualities.
Even if the story is sad, allow your essay to end on a note of optimism or advancement.Prompt #2:Travel or living experiences in other countries.This prompt is aimed at students whose travels have had a significant impact on their personal lives and growth.If you haven’t had a significant experience abroad (or none at all), we recommend that you choose another prompt.On the other hand, the existence of this prompt points to Harvard’s emphasis on diversity of background, experience, and perspective when admitting its newest class.
If you have an experience to fit this niche, it might be a good idea to write to this prompt.If you’re writing to this prompt, instead of glossing over an area’s landmarks, dive deeper into the the nature of the place.Sure, you can mention Rome’s Colosseum, but unless it was the focal point of your personal growth and change in the travel, try to dive deeper into the culture.Be sure to make your story personal rather than a simple itinerary.
Make sure to elaborate on how the places impacted you.
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Ask yourself: H owdid Spanish architecture shape your understanding of their culture, and what does it say about your own? How did your backpacking trip through the nature of Brazil impact your beliefs about humankind’s place in the world, and how did you change as a result? How do the hunting and dietary practices you experienced in India shape how you feel about what you consume today?Be sure to be accurate in your depictions of other cultures and the impacts they have had on your life and outlook.These topics show travel to be a desire for deeper meaning rather than just being able to say, “I have been there.”A great idea, especially if you’ve lived in two different countries, is to compare and contrast the two cultures and how you have lived in both Committee on Degrees in History and Literature. Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Harvard University. A Guide to Writing a Senior Thesis in History and Literature. H&. L We want to teach you all of the tricks of the trade. But we never want to suggest, even for a moment, that there is one, single “History and Literature Way” to .”A great idea, especially if you’ve lived in two different countries, is to compare and contrast the two cultures and how you have lived in both.
For example, if you have lived half of your life in rural England and the other half in Los Angeles, elaborate on how interpersonal relations, manners, and even daily life differs between the two places.More importantly, be sure to also highlight how these cultures have both shaped you (perhaps the fast-paced lifestyle of Southern California inspired you to be more daring and discover new passions) Harvard University. WRITING CENTER BRIEF GUIDE SERIES. A Brief Guide to Writing the Philosophy Paper. The Challenges of Philosophical Writing your thesis. In the example above, Jen's thesis itself is stated in such a way as to indicate how the argument for it will proceed. Jen might reasonably have chosen..
More importantly, be sure to also highlight how these cultures have both shaped you (perhaps the fast-paced lifestyle of Southern California inspired you to be more daring and discover new passions).
While travel and exploring new places is fun, always make sure this essay relays back to you and your growth Harvard University. WRITING CENTER BRIEF GUIDE SERIES. A Brief Guide to Writing the Philosophy Paper. The Challenges of Philosophical Writing your thesis. In the example above, Jen's thesis itself is stated in such a way as to indicate how the argument for it will proceed. Jen might reasonably have chosen..While travel and exploring new places is fun, always make sure this essay relays back to you and your growth.Maybe another country’s hospitality caused you to bring more kindness home.Perhaps a travel experience made you see flaws in your own hometown or nation, and you resolved to be a force for good.As always, be sure to show and not tell.What you would want your future college roommate to know about you.
This prompt runs the risk of producing some very similar essays.Most people like generic things like chocolate and sleep, so try to focus on things more personal.Adopting a unique style (perhaps a letter to your roommate*, or even talking about yourself in the third person), using stories to talk about yourself (where do your core traits originate from?), and even injecting a bit of humor (perhaps you have an irrational fear or an odd quirk) could all help make your essay unique and peak the reader’s interest.It’s important to remember that while the prompt asks you to talk about yourself as a roommate, that does not give you a pass to be informal or use slang.Lastly, making yourself sound like the perfect human being does not sound impressive — it sounds disingenuous.
On the other hand, if you focus mostly on your negative qualities, so will the admissions officer.It’s certainly okay to admit some flaws, but just use your best judgment and remember that you are still trying to portray yourself to an admissions committee!* Note that this format is risky, since Harvard may think that you simply re-purposed a Stanford essay.Prompt #4:An intellectual experience (course, project, book, discussion, paper, poetry, or research topic in engineering, mathematics, science or other modes of inquiry) that has meant the most to you.This prompt is perfect for you to display your intellectual prowess.If a specific experience led you to choose your desired concentration, this is an excellent place to write about it if you haven’t already.
Admissions officers love to see that you are committed to your interests and passionate about your future field.For example, if you decided to concentrate in a STEM field after being a research assistant in a neuroscience lab, this prompt is a great place to elucidate your experience.Another route you may take is to describe an intellectual experience outside of your comfort zone.For example, if your English teacher required you to write a lengthy paper about a topic far outside of your typical engineering realm, and as a result you discovered a passion for medieval English literature, revealing this juxtaposition of seemingly separate interests by highlighting the depths to which you explored this new topic can cause the admissions officer to do a double take (in a good way!).As long as you show how you think and how your experience shaped your intellectual development, there are little boundaries.
Whatever the experience you choose may be, make sure that you can trace an impact from it.Harvard cares about growth and advancement, and so these themes must be central to your essay.How did your experience mature your interests or intellectual development? How did writing that paper change how you problem-solve? How does that research project affect your future aspirations? These are important questions you must answer by taking your reader on an exploratory journey through your writing.Prompt #5:How you hope to use your college education.This is a fairly generic question you may need to answer more than once during your experience with the college application process, so it is good to have a firm grasp on your response anyway.
Harvard anticipates investing their time and effort into you, and they want to know what they will receive in return.
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By asking this question, they are really asking you what kind of person you plan to be after graduation, as you will be representing the school during not only your brief years of study, but also for a lifetime.Never imply that your degree from Harvard or any prestigious institution is worthwhile because of future financial gain.Saying that you want to attend Harvard because their graduates earn more money on average is a pretty poor strategy, even if you try to make the case that building up your wealth first will allow you to make larger changes in society Need to buy an thesis building A4 (British/European) Undergrad. (yrs 3-4) Proofreading single spaced.Saying that you want to attend Harvard because their graduates earn more money on average is a pretty poor strategy, even if you try to make the case that building up your wealth first will allow you to make larger changes in society.
These are horrible ways to convince admissions officers of your interest.Even though this essay should focus on how attending Harvard will affect you throughout your life, it is important to be able to mention specific things about the university that will facilitate your success.Go beyond name dropping programs or activities, and deepen your understanding of how an education at Harvard will be beneficial to your personal growth.Then, reflect how that growth will translate into real-world success.For example, if you want to pursue a Government concentration while at Harvard, do some research on their program.
Discussing how the Institute of Politics will help mold you as a debater and a student of the social sciences is far more effective than simply saying that you know they have a good program.Talk about how the skills and lessons you will learn from the Institute of Politics and the Government Program will help you use your degree to the fullest.Specificity is key here!It is important to not only know specifics about the school but about your field as well.Any student can write about their passion for law, but only you can write about why you want to be a civil rights attorney.
Talk about how you want to expand voting rights or change the immigration system in your career.Don’t just say that you want to be a doctor.Rather, talk about what problems in cardiology you are passionate about (and why), and link your pursuit of fixing those problems to your degree.Prompt #6:A list of books you have read during the past twelve months.
This prompt is perhaps the most intimidating of them all due to its simplicity.
However, it is doable — CollegeVine students are accepted every year having chosen this essay prompt.At first glance, a simple list of books seems very impersonal, and it deprives your ability to use your own voice and tell stories about your own life and experiences.However, if you are an avid reader, this could be a good prompt to address.Keep in mind, though, that your Harvard supplement should highlight aspects of your profile not covered very much in the rest of your application.This means that if you discussed your love for reading (and named books you’ve read recently) earlier in your application, doing so again in this essay might seem repetitive.
For this prompt, Harvard asks for a list, but it does not prohibit any commentary on the books you have read.If you have some sort of original (not taken from the Internet!) analysis or personal reflections on the book, feel free to include them.If a book had an abnormally profound impact on you, talk about it and how it changed you as a person.In fact, unless your list is exceptionally interesting because of how unique and different your book choices are (i., it contains a ton of acclaimed authors from various genres and disciplines), you would be better served by diving deeper into a select few texts you have read.Finally, keep in mind the message you are trying to relay throughout your application.If you claim to have a passion for Greek Classics in your Common Application Essay, but haven’t read any of them in the last year, the admissions officer might question your sincerity.Prompt #7:The Harvard College Honor code declares that we ‘hold honesty as the foundation of our community.’ As you consider entering this community that is committed to honesty, please reflect on a time when you or someone you observed had to make a choice about whether to act with integrity and honesty.
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This prompt reveals Harvard’s penchant for students that exemplify honesty and integrity as core traits.Here is a chance to showcase your softer qualities of compassion and self-reflection.Throughout life, we have all encountered instances where we have a choice between honesty and dishonesty In your Masters programme, you will have to write assignments for most modules, as well as a dissertation of 15,000 words at the end. The type of writing 1.3 Academic writing at Masters and Doctoral degree level is not about testing your knowledge- it is about building knowledge They are indented and single spaced..Throughout life, we have all encountered instances where we have a choice between honesty and dishonesty.
For this essay, though, you must make sure that your experience is uncommon enough to draw in your reader.For example, if your teacher once gave you extra points on a test due to a calculation error and you brought it to their attention, this essay is not for you.
If you led a team of reporters at your school newspaper to pressure your school administration into releasing salary data, you may have come to the right place.It is okay to talk about an instance in which you lied, so long as you show steps you made to rectify the lie and improve your integrity.The point of this essay is not to make you preach about the importance of honesty, but rather to force you to show a more complete understanding of the concept and its importance.If it took a lie to make you grasp the concept of honesty, be honest about it and tell the story.The most effective answers to this prompt will detail situations where the choices presented to the author are morally ambiguous.
The subsequent analysis of how the author reasoned through the situation are what make this essay come to life.Just make sure to be wary of the lie you choose to write about.Don’t write about committing a crime or anything in a legally grey area.Don’t talk about cheating on a test or falsifying some sort of academic record.Colleges take these offenses extremely seriously, and academic integrity violations almost always end in expulsion.
On the other hand, if you told a lie to spare someone’s feelings or to make a good impression on a group of new friends and ended up being hurt more severely in the long run, that is fair game.Last but not least, go beyond the story.We talk a lot about “show not tell” at CollegeVine, and here it is no different.Rather than explicitly discussing the concept of honesty on a literal level, use a compelling story as a vehicle to prove your point.Avoid clich s such as “the truth will set you free,” or “it is harder to remember lies,” as these will make you sound less sincere.
Showcase that you share Harvard’s value of honesty in your story and your reflection on it.Prompt #8:The mission of Harvard College is to educate our students to be citizens and citizen-leaders for society.What would you do to contribute to the lives of your classmates in advancing this mission? This prompt should tell you that Harvard holds leaders in high regard.Here, they test your self-knowledge as to where and how you can help fit society’s needs.In a similar way to Prompt 5, they are trying to see the type of graduate you will become.
If leadership has been central to your life experiences, be sure to make note of those roles here.Be picky when deciding what roles to highlight, though! Make sure the group you led has something to show for your leadership (whether that thing be tangible or intangible).For example, if you helped a club on campus better the culture of its membership, talk about how your leadership contributed to that.If you helped a diverse set of teammates come together for a common goal, discuss what aspects of your citizenship helped bring everyone together.Your goal here is in two parts: create an assessment for your personal leadership skills, and address how your community or society has benefited from it (more than simply pointing to trophies or awards, this is intended to show how society itself can change because of you.
)Make sure you showcase your leadership style, and how you believe it was effective.
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More importantly, make sure to show why you think it will be effective in the future.Remember, this essay should relay back to you as a graduate of Harvard!One strategy could be to build up your leadership skills, then direct them to a specific area where you feel inspired to change society.If you choose this route, be specific in terms of the needs you can fill 24 Aug 2017 - From its historic campus to its prestigious alumni, Harvard has built a reputation that speaks for itself. Founded in 1636, Harvard boasts one of the lowest university acceptance rates in the world, second only to Stanford. Last year, Harvard College (the undergraduate school) drew over 39,000 applicants; .
If you choose this route, be specific in terms of the needs you can fill.
Ask yourself: What qualities of a leader does a good lawyer need to have? How does citizenship help you be a good engineer? Most importantly: How do those necessities in those positions lead back to who you are?Remember to answer the other aspect of the question.
Besides being a good citizen-leader, how will you be a good citizen? Admissions officers want you to discuss how you would be an important part of something greater than yourself.You could use an example of something you did as a part of an extracurricular activity of which you were not the president or the de facto leader.For example, if you built an app for a conference your town was hosting, helped organize logistics for a school recital, or even volunteered at a food bank throughout high school, this prompt would fit your experiences well abaleatherdoctor.com/powerpoint-presentation/latin-american-studies.php.For example, if you built an app for a conference your town was hosting, helped organize logistics for a school recital, or even volunteered at a food bank throughout high school, this prompt would fit your experiences well.Harvard finds it very important that the citizens of their learning community come from diverse backgrounds, allowing students to learn from one another.Think about how you can add to this environment of diversity, or discuss your experience in a diverse environment in relation to your citizenship within it.
Essays about discrimination or inequality in your community, and your development as a citizen-leader as a result, could fit well to this prompt.Prompt #9:You may write on a topic of your choice.Students should use this prompt to highlight aspects of themselves that other prompts cannot cover.Using this prompt will in no way be weighed differently than the others.Harvard’s admissions committee simply wants you to have the freedom to discuss whatever you want in their supplement.
Instead of looking at the previous prompts as your only options, consider them mere suggestions.If you have written a really strong essay for another school, you can simply recycle that essay here.INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS DIFFERENT IN ACADEMIC WRITING In your Masters programme, you will have to write assignments for most modules, as well as a dissertation of 15,000 words at the end.The type of writing that is required at Masters degree level in the Social Sciences may be different from the writing you have done either professionally, or in a previous degree course.
These guidelines offer information on the characteristics of academic writing in the Social Sciences.Here are the main features that distinguish academic writing from some other types of writing.1 Academic writing needs to be presented in a specific way Academic writing requires a clear structure, an objective and relatively formal style, precise language, and the acknowledgement of all sources that you used.These features are discussed in sections 2, 3, and 4.
You also have to stay within the set word limits for the various assignments and the dissertation (these are stated in the Programme Handbook).2 Unlike other forms of writing, all claims made in academic writing must be backed up by evidence In some types of writing, you can make claims on the basis of your personal opinions or assumptions.In academic writing, you must provide appropriate justification for your claims through arguments and evidence.In your assignments, the evidence for your claims will mainly come from the work of other scholars in the field.In your dissertation, it is likely that you will carry out empirical research yourself.Then, you will have two sets of claims and two evidence bases: 1) Claims by other authors that justify your research and position it in the field.These claims will be based on your careful review of the literature.The literature review will have provided evidence of what previous research has achieved, and which questions it has left unanswered.
2) Claims based on the evidence of your own research.
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These claims usually represent new knowledge in the field.Example: Need for evidence In everyday conversations, you are not normally expected to provide a detailed analysis of the topic.For instance, if someone asks you ‘What do you think of devolution?’ they want to know whether you are for or against, and they would be bored if you went into an analysis of the current debate Second, after the thesis proposal has been approved, and an approved-proposal form completed, the candidate If you have not yet been accepted into the ALM program, and thus do not have a University ID or PIN, However, it should be understood from the outset that no single such factor ever fully accounts for the..For instance, if someone asks you ‘What do you think of devolution?’ they want to know whether you are for or against, and they would be bored if you went into an analysis of the current debate.
In academic writing, the priorities are reversed.
The reader is not interested in your personal opinion, but wants to know what are (a) the main issues to be considered, and (b) the various lines of argument that can be developed.You must put the reader in the position to form his/her own judgement based on the evidence and arguments that you have presented.Your claims or conclusion are less important than how you arrived at them.This feature of academic writing is further discussed in sections 4, 5, and 6.3 Academic writing at Masters and Doctoral degree level is not about testing your knowledge- it is about building knowledge At undergraduate level, some exams and assignments may be designed to test students’ knowledge of facts.At Masters level, you are expected to contribute to knowledge through your writing.It is not enough to report what others in the field have done and written.You are expected to critically analyse the literature and to take a stance, expressing your own voice by challenging existing claims, concepts and theories.The assignment topic or question often indicates this expectation by asking you to ‘discuss’ or ‘evaluate’.
STRUCTURE Assignments and dissertations need a clear structure with headings and sub-headings for the various chapters and sections.The sections need to be structured by paragraphs.The main sections of assignments Assignments usually have three main sections, the Introduction, the Main Text and the Conclusion, followed by the Reference List and, if appropriate, Appendices.The Main Text should be structured by headings that reflect your line of argument.It introduces the question/problem and explains the purpose and focus of the paper.It also provides some background information, for instance on previous work in the area, and on research gaps.
If necessary, it provides definitions of the key term(s).Finally, the Introduction outlines in summary form how you are going to deal with the topic, and the various stages you will take before reaching the Conclusion.If appropriate, you also may state here why the topic is relevant to you, for instance in relation to your professional context.For an example of an Introduction see the example for Signposting below.The Main Text includes a critical review of the literature.
Based on this review, you will develop your argument.The nature of the argument is specific to the assignment question/topic and can be any of the following: a) you argue for one position presented in the literature and explain why this is, on the basis of your critical analysis, more convincing than others; b) you argue that all current positions are not convincing and explain why; c) you argue that for your specific professional context, one position is more applicable than the others.Depending on the question/topic, there might be other lines of argument.The important point is that you take a stance and make a critical evaluation of the literature instead of just reporting it.The Conclusion should give the reader the clear impression that the purposes of the assignment have been achieved.
It typically includes: A summary of the main points (discussed in the Main Text) Concluding statements drawn from these points The Introduction and Conclusion must link together; at the end of your paper, you should look back at the goals you set out in the Introduction and discuss how you achieved them.The dissertation is usually about your own research, not a given question/topic, and therefore the structure includes chapters such as ‘Research Methodology’, ‘Findings’, and ‘Discussion of Findings’.
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The structure of the dissertation is discussed in section 7.Signposting Signposting is an important feature of academic writing which enables the reader to follow your development of the topic.You need to signal how the various sections of your writing link together, and what you are going to discuss next and why 20 Oct 2014 - An Abridged Guide to the. Academic Learning Centre. School of Access Education. Edition T3 2016. Harvard. Referencing Style Line spacing in the reference list is single even though the assignment is 1.5 or double line spacing. The title is References and it is bold, left aligned, and has the same font .You need to signal how the various sections of your writing link together, and what you are going to discuss next and why.
There are two aspects to signposting: 1) saying where you are; 2) saying where you are going.Below is an example of signposting, where the signposting devices are highlighted in bold print.Example of Signposting in an Introduction Vocabulary is seen as an issue of primary importance nowadays in language teaching, and at the same time it is an issue that poses problems to learners.
In this paper I am going to comment on what constitutes ease and difficulty in vocabulary acquisition focusing on how it is influenced by lexical correspondences between first and second language.After a brief opening, I will look more closely at different dimensions of lexical correspondences between languages and explain how these can affect the acquisition of lexis where to purchase a college performing arts thesis proposal Academic Writing from scratch A4 (British/European).After a brief opening, I will look more closely at different dimensions of lexical correspondences between languages and explain how these can affect the acquisition of lexis.For the purpose of this essay, three groups of lexical correspondences will be adapted: true lexical correspondences, polysemic extensions and non-correspondences.Then I will present my own small-scale action research as a way of illustrating the issue in question.Finally, I will discuss some teaching implications of the subject matter.
Extract from a student assignment Note that the structure of the assignment is clearly signposted thought the discourse markers: after a brief opening (i.Paragraphs It is important to divide your text into meaningful paragraphs.This makes it easier for you to develop your argument, and for the reader to follow it.Consider the following guidelines: Each paragraph should contain one main idea or topic.
The idea or topic is often introduced in the opening sentence.The rest of the paragraph is then used to give examples, evidence, definitions and further explanations of the idea/topic.There is no golden rule about how long a paragraph should be.However, avoid paragraphs of just one or two sentences.The following example shows the topic and topic development of two paragraphs.
Example: Paragraphs The concerns over the years.These have been related to such issues as the most appropriate age for commencement of language learning (Burstall et al, 1974), the most appropriate teaching methodologies (Richards & Rogers, 1986), and the relative achievements of girls and boys (Graham & Rees, 1995; Clark & Trafford, 1996).However, the major concern has undoubtedly been the apparent reluctance of the British to learn a foreign language at all, and the declining level of achievement in this domain (Saunders, 1998).As we move into an era where our future will need to be based on multilingualism (Graddol, 1997), such a situation has serious consequences.
A recent report on behalf of the Nuffield Foundation (Moys, 1998) highlights a number of key questions regarding the current situation and the future of foreign language learning, as well as emphasising the deeply political underpinnings of a policy on language learning.
The Nuffield Inquiry points firmly to the need for foreign languages in the twenty-first century from a European perspective, from a business stance, and because of the increasing necessity for international communication.As David Graddol warns in the report, ‘Speaking English alone will not be enough to ensure a full and productive participation in the 21st Century’ (1997, p.(2002) ‘French is the language of love and stuff’: student perception of issues related to motivation in learning a foreign language.British Educational Research Journal, 28, 4, 503 – 527.