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We entered the custom essay writing industry as a custom essay writing service over seven years ago and, since then we have been strongly committed to delivering only high quality custom written essays, term papers, research papers and other written assignments, to satisfy all the customers who buy custom papers from our website.Our services WRITING A THESIS A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content.It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance.For a writer in the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information.For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion.
A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of academic material.This last sentence is our thesis for this section.Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows.You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material.As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations.
back to contents The Components of a Thesis Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject.In the sentence "Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals," "Lee and Grant" is the subject and "were different kinds of generals" is the predicate.What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion.The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper.The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation.
(If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be.For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government.Consider the subject of this sentence, "democracy," and the assertion of its predicate, "is the best system of government." The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.
The predicate of our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised.A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of college students.back to contents Limiting the Scope of the Thesis Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it.Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic).back to contents Begin with a Working Thesis Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers.
But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience.Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper.Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers.Experience counts - there's no way around it.As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind.
Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience.In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper.But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters).We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs.Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry.
The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written.Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research.Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper.After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing.Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it.
Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper.If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement.If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified.(You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.
) back to contents Begin with a Subject and Narrow It Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory).
Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements.It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs.He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper.Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy.Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features.
What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture.The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason.(For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles.For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor.
Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure.Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity.Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS.At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope.
Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, "AIDS," we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting).A subject can be limited in at least two ways.First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting).Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: Who? How? These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions.Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject "AIDS" by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients.
Certainly, "the civil rights of AIDS patients" offers a more specific focus than does "AIDS"; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights.So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question.In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time.Six aspects may come to mind: Rights in the workplace Rights to education Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment.In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment.
So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it.Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do.The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic.The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them.
In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate.So reading allowed you to narrow the subject "AIDS" by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects.Once you narrowed your focus to "the civil rights of AIDS patients," you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited.In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper.back to contents Make an Assertion Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it.
If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources.If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it.Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis.A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic.In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper.
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Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity.During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists.Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace Write my custom taxation dissertation single spaced CBE two hours American.Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones.Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements Parking Space. 29. Settling Down. 30. Housing and Finding a Place to Stay. 30. First Few Days. 30. ETH-Zurich-Owned Apartments. 31. Where to Look for Money gone; thesis less so? 71. AVETH Help. 73. Finishing a Ph.D. Thesis. 74. Paper-Based & Normal Dissertations. 74. Printing the Thesis. 74. The Defense. 74..
Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements.
Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested.After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity.The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you.Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions.
The third thesis is strongly argumentative.
"Most sensible" implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones.Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper.Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come.The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory: During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists.
In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken.Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow.Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist.The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion.The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion.We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights.Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever.Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other.(Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the "most sensible.
") As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex.It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading.The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations.back to contents Different writing tasks require different thesis statements.The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.
, "List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy").The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e., "In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?").
The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e., "Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy").The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections.But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions.
One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs.You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers.Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task.As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis.To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion.
Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the assignment.Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write.Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the "fit" of your thesis with the paper that follows.Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows.Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions.
back to contents quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing.A summary, in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written.And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source.Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase.How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions.
It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation.You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely.When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted.So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice.
Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers.
The trick is to know when and how to use quotations.back to contents Choosing Quotations Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper.Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective.Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing.back to contents Quoting Memorable Language Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine.
Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy.How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last.Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing.How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you.
In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence."Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? .What emotions you evoke!" he said of her letters.
"Written in fire, they poor heart!" The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper.A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter.In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation: Franklin D.Roosevelt said: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself.The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks (" "), must be faithful to the language of the original passage.When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning).For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources, naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation or, in some disciplines, in a footnote .back to contents Quoting Clear and Concise Language You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy.
Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter.This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10°C (50°F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7°C (45°F).Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster.The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.
In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery.The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves.A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by "clustering together in a dense ball" for body warmth.A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter.The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.
But when "clustering together in a dense ball," the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts.The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs.This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months.In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's "clustering together in a dense ball," a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees.For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.
back to contents Quoting Authoritative Language You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work.When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company.Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable.Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers.For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.
It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
" By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion.
Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers.
The quotation has elevated the level of your work 5 Sep 2012 - Graduate students who have recently been on the job market or have recently landed a job typically have the most current, reliable information on salaries, as do the faculty advisers and dissertation directors who help to place successful applicants. Additionally, salaries for faculty members at public .The quotation has elevated the level of your work.
You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper.Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective.Other space scientists dispute that idea.
Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other abaleatherdoctor.com/powerpoint-presentation/where-to-purchase-a-custom-agricultural-technology-powerpoint-presentation-academic-premium-formatting-without-plagiarism.Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other.But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero abaleatherdoctor.com/powerpoint-presentation/where-to-purchase-a-custom-agricultural-technology-powerpoint-presentation-academic-premium-formatting-without-plagiarism.But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero." Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight.In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen.
Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight.Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, Joseph Allen, The phrases in italics are called appositives.Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program James Van Allen, Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote.Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative.
Now we will put these principles into practice.Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves.They want to be educational institutions, but they can't.The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated.But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards.
These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves.Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards.Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.
back to contents Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible.Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins.And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.back to contents A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards.
"These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes.Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader.Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end.Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.
" A variation: "These gentry," asserts Robert Hutchins, "often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above).When attributing sources, try to vary the standard "states," "writes," "says," and so on.Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts," "argues," "maintains," "insists," "asks," and even "wonders.
" back to contents Using Ellipsis Marks Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau.Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object.Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.
It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written." Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion.
The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken.
When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original.Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose.If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: "To read well .is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem." If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: "It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.
Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written." If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis.Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau.back to contents Using Brackets Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence.The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion.
For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets.When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed.Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella.This book's text is coy and condescending.(Sample: "And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!") The illustrations are poor cartoons.
She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds.(Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings.She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.
She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice.She does not hear them because she is "off in a world of dreams." Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! she refers to.You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that " Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless." If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella "is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.
" If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets.Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours.If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, "After the fire the officers did not return to the station house for three hours." You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly.Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's "Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's": These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey.
As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred.In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life.The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures.But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival.
For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated.Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers.They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly.Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing.
Then the computers learned very quickly.One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years.If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words "the proposition" would be unclear.Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, "The proposition that computers will emerge as a form of life seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures." Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism.
See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.back to contents WRITING INTRODUCTIONS A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen).Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write.Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots.
) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem.What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively.Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction.There's a lot to be said for this approach.Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis).
And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a "natural" way of introducing it becomes apparent.
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Even if there is no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to.Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way.After all, you have to start writing somewhere, and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin Professional custom writing service offers custom essays, term papers, research papers, thesis papers, reports, reviews, speeches and dissertations of superior quality written from scratch by highly qualified academic writers..After all, you have to start writing somewhere, and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.
If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful.
Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military .Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis.Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) "won't count" and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military .Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) "won't count" and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours.But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started.The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay astrophysics technology.The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay.The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand.
There are many ways to provide such a context.We'll consider just a few of the most common.back to contents In introduction to a paper on democracy: "Two cheers for democracy" was E.Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment.
To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization.White, democracy is "the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles .
the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time" (915).American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers.But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock, Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: "The world of today .is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's" (13).As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives.The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks.Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole.back to contents Historical Review In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background.
Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues.In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of "immorality" from the screen.Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house.In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code.At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth.
Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal.Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it.At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable.For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films.
By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip.
In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence.Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system.The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system.By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.Notice the chronological development of details.
back to contents Review of a Controversy A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate.Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: "the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance." However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut.For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article "Civil Disobedience," holds that"to think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule.
" On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article "Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy," states that "civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government." These two views are clearly incompatible.I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing.On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society.
The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay.But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners.By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay.back to contents From General to the Specific Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to a specific one.The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case.
Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind.But what of the perfectly "normal" man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations.Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority.Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt.William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children.
back to contents Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft.Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions.Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate.Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a "nuclear winter.
" Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined.It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war.The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat).The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention.
For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject.back to contents Question Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence.According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, "As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work." Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women.Are gender roles learned? back to contents Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing.
The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them."We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine," say the authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek, "that will change forever the way an entire nation works," beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand.Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters.One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier.Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology.
This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing.It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing.The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting.The paragraph goes on to concede some of the "blessings" of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is "a certain danger" associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow.
One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing.
Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions.This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction.If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one.You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs.(Our paragraph on the "nuclear winter," for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence "The results astounded them.
") back to contents WRITING CONCLUSIONS One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader.A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented.The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper.Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on.
you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior.Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are "thinking large" and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society.Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion.First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper.
Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight.It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work.Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction.Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves.Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent.
But keep a sense of proportion and timing.
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Make your points quickly and end crisply.back to contents Statement of the Subject's Significance One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort.When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world FAQs for Current Postgraduate Research nbsp University of Bristol.When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world.
Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church.
But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks Best website to order an taxation dissertation 100% plagiarism free AMA Academic double spaced Platinum.But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks.The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H.Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: .Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt.
From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year.
The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world.Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties.And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids.Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed.
From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world.The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn.The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world.back to contents Call for Further Research In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored.
If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted.
This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes.Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement.What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes.The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes.But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities.
Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities.There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services.Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work.The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation.back to contents Solution/Recommendation The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors.
In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research.If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population.It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care.At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A &M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition.
The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job.This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement.The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost.But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution.
With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: "The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards." In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that "educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens" be responsible for the welfare of college athletes.In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal.He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal.
back to contents Anecdote An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject.The anecdote is more direct than an allusion.With an allusion, you merely refer to a story ("Too many people today live in Plato's cave ."); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story.The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity.The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide.In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes.she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care.
In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin, Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: "What is Fate?" Nasrudin was asked by a scholar."An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other." "Very well," said the Mulla, "look at that.
" He pointed to a procession passing in the street.Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?" The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote.She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader.
The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret.
Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible.back to contents Quotation A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility.The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis.But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you.Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic.
If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper.There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers.More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - "friendly," in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science.And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered.One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds.
If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers."For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive," says SRl's Peter Schwartz.In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished.But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced." In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing.
Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to make one final remark.Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example.Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself.For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers.In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits "almost identical to the diet of around 1900," says Maureen Henderson.
"It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now.It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people." Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking.Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in."We're not here to convince the public to take anything," she says.
What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can.The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief.
If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising.The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.back to contents Question Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them.The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows.
But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the second stage.Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response.This tactic also places the reader in an active role.The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled "Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'?" So the answer to the question "Would an intelligent computer have the right to life?" is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence.Speculation When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen.
This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown.
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The following paragraph concludes "The New Generation Gap" by Neil Howe and William Strauss.In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the "Gl Generation" (born between 1901 and 1924), the "Boomers" (born 1943- 1961), the "Thirteeners" (born 1961-1981), and the "Millennials" (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age.Study after story after column will laud these "best damn kids in the world" as heralding a resurgent American greatness Custom Writing Service Order Custom Essay Term Paper Research nbsp.Study after story after column will laud these "best damn kids in the world" as heralding a resurgent American greatness.
And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap.
FAQ What is the objective of organizing INSPIRE Internship camp 10-12 eminent mentors covering the disciplines Physics, Chemistry, Life Science, Earth Sciences and Mathematical Science needs to be called. The entry in INSPIRE Fellowship would be only as JRF/JRF-P there is no any direct entry into SRF/SRF-P. The Junior Research Fellow (JRF) or Senior Research Fellow (SRF) .FAQ What is the objective of organizing INSPIRE Internship camp.The objective of organizing the INSPIRE Internship camp is to reveal the joys of innovation to the talented youth of the nation to pursue study in science and career in Research and Development.Institutes/Degree Colleges/ Universities can organize INSPIRE Internship Science Camps case study.Institutes/Degree Colleges/ Universities can organize INSPIRE Internship Science Camps.What is the Eligibility of the Program Coordinator? Program Coordinator of the proposed INSPIRE Internship camp should be a regular faculty/employee of the respective Institute with science background case study.
What is the Eligibility of the Program Coordinator? Program Coordinator of the proposed INSPIRE Internship camp should be a regular faculty/employee of the respective Institute with science background.
Who can Participate in these Camps? Students within the eligibility criteria (Given on the website ) in Class X of respective Education Boards and pursuing 11th in Science discipline.
Whether 12th standard students can participate in the INSPIRE INTERNSHIP Camp? 12th Students can participate in the INSPIRE INTERNSHIP Camp before the declaration of result of class X each year.What is the budget of organizing INSPIRE Internship Science Camp? Maximum budget for a science camp is based on the number of participating students with a ceiling of maximum to the sanctioned strength i.No additional grant will be sanctioned beyond the norms.What is the minimum and maximum size of the INSPIRE Internship Science Camp? The minimum and maximum INSPIRE Internship Science Camp limit is not there.It depends on the infrastructural capacity of the organizing institute.But preferred camp size is 150 students participation.
How many mentors needs to be called for a camp ? 10-12 eminent mentors covering the disciplines Physics, Chemistry, Life Science, Earth Sciences and Mathematical Science needs to be called.What is the infrastructural requirement for organizing the INSPIRE Internship Camp? The infrastructural requirement for organizing the INSPIRE Internship Camp is lab infrastructure in the area of Physics, Chemistry, Life Science, Earth Sciences and Mathematical Sciences etc., Auditorium with sound system, Guest House, Hostel accommodation for boys and girls.The bank detail submission page consists of a selected bank details list already approved by DST.If you select the required bank detail from the list, you do not have to wait for its approval.
Back To Top Scholarship for Higher Education Scholarship for Higher Education.Scholarship for Higher Education (SHE) is a component scheme under Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE), which is a flagship programme of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.It aims to engage young talents for the study of Science and Technology and pursue research as a career and to augment youth to undertake higher education in Scienceintensive courses by providing scholarships to deserving students.Under this scheme SHE, Bachelors and Masters level courses in Basic and Natural Sciences .Who can apply for SHE? What are the eligibility criteria for availing these scholarships? (a) Meritorious Students with aggregate marks within top 1% of their Class XII examination of any State/ Central Board in India are eligible.
In addition, the student must be pursuing courses in Natural and Basic Sciences at the BSc, BS, and /MS level.(b) Those students who have secured ranks in the JEE of IIT, AIPMT (within top 10000 ranks), and are presently pursuing Natural and Basic Science courses in India at the BSc, BS, /MS level.courses at IISERs, NISER and Department of Atomic Energy Centre for Basic Sciences, Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana (KVPY), National Talent Search Examination (NTSE), Jagadish Bose National Science Talent Search (JBNSTS) scholars and International Olympiad medalists pursuing Bachelor/ Master level courses in Natural Sciences.
In the case of receiving more than 10,000 eligible applications in the given year, the selection will be on the basis of Board inclusive model within the available number of Scholarships in that year.What courses are eligible for the offer of INSPIRE Scholarship? The following subjects under Basic and Natural Sciences are within the scope of INSPIRE Scholarship for pursuing BSc/BS/Int.MS course: (1) Physics, (2) Chemistry, (3) Mathematics, (4) Biology, (5) Statistics, (6) Geology, (7) Astrophysics, (8) Astronomy, (9) Electronics, (10) Botany, (11) Zoology, (12) Bio- chemistry, (13) Anthropology, (14) Microbiology, (15) Geophysics, (16) Geochemistry, (17) Atmospheric Sciences & (18) Oceanic Sciences.The student before applying for INSPIRE Scholarship.
Courses other than these subjects such as Engineering, Medicine, Military Science, Defense Studies, Agriculture, Psychology, Seed Technology, Anthropology, Home Science, Geography, Economics, Education (including .dual degree course), Bio-technology, Computer Science, Computer Applications, Bio-informatics, Instrumentation, Information Technology, Physical Education, courses in Distance Education mode at the Open Universities and other professional courses are NOT supported.Each candidate will receive annual scholarship total value of Rs.
All the SHE scholars are required to undertake summer research projects under an active researcher in any recognized research centers across India.20,000/- will be paid as Mentorship every year.The scholars have to submit the project report and Certificate from mentor after the completion of the project in due course of time.
What is the tenure of INSPIRE-SHE? Selected candidates will be supported for a maximum period of five years, starting from the 1st year BSc, BS, Int.MSc/ or until the completion of the course, whichever is earlier.Continuation of the scholarship for the selected candidates is based on good academic performance in the examinations conducted by the University and upon the recommendation by the Head of the Institution.When should I apply for SHE? Only candidates who have completed their XII standard in the year and are enrolled in BSc, BS, Int.MSc/MS degrees, in Natural and Basic Sciences (in subjects listed above) in same year can apply.
The call for applications will be advertised in major newspapers.Also check our website for regular updates.The online application link can be found here: or at .How should I apply for the scholarship? One can apply for the scholarship through online mode only.
To apply online, please follow this link .
The guidelines for online applications are given here.The following documents are mandatory Class XII Mark Sheets (for proof of date of birth) Endorsement Certificate as per the prescribed format, signed by the Principal of the College/Director of the Institute/Registrar of the University (mandatory) (if provided by the State/Central Board) (not mandatory) Certificate specifying Rank or Award in JEE (Main)/ JEE (Advanced)/ NEET/ KVPY /JBNSTS/ NTSE / International Olympic Medalists (if the candidate is eligible under this criterion) Please note that incomplete applications will be summarily rejected.No claims or representations will be entertained regarding the same.When will I be intimated of my selection? As we receive a large number of applications, the selection process on an average takes at least four months from the last date of submission of the application.All selected candidates shall receive a Provisional Offer letter on their web portal informing that they are selected for the scholarship.
The selected students are required to log into the online portal to download the offer letter.The list of selected and rejected students will also be displayed on home page of INSPIRE website.The selected candidates have to upload the required documents on their web-portal in prescribed time period (time period mentioned in offer letter) for further consideration.I am selected for SHE but I have not received any official letter.What should I do? Please Log in to the online portal.
If you are selected, the offer letter will be available in your dashboard.For the release of the scholarship, one should submit year wise Performance Report and Mark Sheet of his/her BSc, BS, Int.The blank format of the Performance report can be found on our website or in our online portal .The Performance report must be signed by the Head of the Institution.
The Head of the Institution here refers to (a) Vice-Chancellor/Registrar/Dean of Science in case of Universities and (b) Principal/Vice-Principal, Proctor and Officer-in-Charge in case of colleges.Attestation of the endorsement forms by officers other than those mentioned above (such as Head of the Department, Section officers, Student welfare officers, etc.The Head of the Institution should clearly mention whether the scholarship should be continued or discontinued for that academic year.A photocopy of the Mark Sheets (annual/two semesters) received from the University must be enclosed along with the Performance Report.
Provisional mark sheets and result sheets downloaded from the internet shall not be accepted.When should I submit the documents? a) The annual Performance Reports and Mark sheets (annual/two semesters) should be submitted as soon as the results of the respective examinations are announced.The scholarship will be released only after the approval of the Performance Report and mark sheets.The Scholar shall submit above referred documents altogether.Scholarship will not be processed in case any one of the aforementioned documents is not submitted.
b) Scholars are advised to submit their yearly Mark-sheets and performance related documents on-time, preferably within 2 months of announcement of yearly results to facilitate the payment of scholarship by DST-INSPIRE.However, keeping in view the diverse time schedules of the examinations in Universities across the country, scholars are permitted a maximum period of twelve (12) months to submit their Performance Report and Mark-sheets for a given completed academic year ending June every year.As an example, 2012 batch enrolled student is expected to submit the First Year Performance Report and First Year Mark Sheet before 30th June 2014.This analogy can be followed by other batches for the release of the INSPIRE Scholarship.After the expiry of maximum time period of 12 months, no document will be considered.
No representations in this regard shall be entertained.You should upload the following documents to continue the scholarship.(a) Performance report for second year BSc/BS/Int.MSc/ course signed and attested by the Head of the Institution and (b) Self-signed original copy of marks sheet of your BSc/BS/Int.I am an INSPIRE Scholar and I have sent all the relevant documents for the continuation of my scholarship.I am yet to receive my scholarship amount.What should I do? Please note that it usually takes 3-4 months to release the scholarship after the approval of relevant documents.If you have NOT received the scholarship even after five months of approval of relevant documents, please write to [email protected] .(a) Scholar has not submitted his/her Performance Reports/Mark Sheets (b) Failure or poor performance in B.
The scholarship will be released as soon as the above mentioned concerns have been addressed.Will the scholarship be continued? For continuation of Scholarship at any stage at B.level, you need to consistently perform better and secure minimum First class or CGPA ≥ 6.
0 (on a 10-point scale or its equivalent) or above 60% marks in the University or college level examination.If you have failed or secured a CGPA score of less than 6.0 (on a 10-point scale or its equivalent) or less than 60% marks in the BSc/BS/Int.MSc/ examination, the scholarship for that academic year shall be forfeited.The scholarship will be resumed in the next year only if your academic performance is satisfactory.
I could not attend my annual/semester University examination.Will the scholarship be continued? In such a case, one year of scholarship will be forfeited.The scholarship will be resumed in the next year, provided your academic performance is good (see above question).I am an INSPIRE Scholar and have completed my B.in Natural Sciences and I wish to pursue my M.What documents should I send to extend my scholarship? After three years of B.course (Natural and Basic Sciences only) anywhere in the country and provide us with proof of enrollment in the M.The blank format of the same can be found in this link: /MSc enroll .
The following subjects under Basic and Natural Sciences are within the scope of INSPIRE Scholarship for pursuing M.
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course: (1) Physics, (2) Chemistry, (3) Mathematics, (4) Biology, (5) Statistics, (6) Geology, (7) Astrophysics, (8) Astronomy, (9) Electronics, (10) Botany, (11) Zoology, (12) Bio-chemistry, (13) Anthropology, (14) Microbiology, (15) Geophysics, (16) Geochemistry, (17) Atmospheric Sciences & (18) Oceanic Sciences.In such a case, the scholarship will NOT be continued.Can you explain the terms of Summer Projects to be undertaken by all the INSPIRE scholars? In order to inculcate scientific values and develop scientific temper, the scholars are required to enroll in a Summer Research Project every year during the summer holidays, in recognized research centers of their choice across India, preferably outside their parent institutions 30 May 2011 - Do the new digital dynamics change the rules for graduate students (and junior faculty members) seeking to publish their first book? That is: The library already subscribes to scholarly journals, and will already have the writer's work available that way, so buying a book with some of the same information .Can you explain the terms of Summer Projects to be undertaken by all the INSPIRE scholars? In order to inculcate scientific values and develop scientific temper, the scholars are required to enroll in a Summer Research Project every year during the summer holidays, in recognized research centers of their choice across India, preferably outside their parent institutions.
20,000/- per annum is provided as Mentorship to the INSPIRE scholar, to undertake Summer Research Programmes.
The mentorship will be transferred to your bank account Help me do a dissertation taxation for me US Letter Size American Standard single spaced.The mentorship will be transferred to your bank account.After completion of the project, the scholar should send the following documents to the DST: (a) A letter attested by the Research Guide where the scholar is enrolled for the project and (b) A report outlining the objectives and results of the project Help me do a dissertation taxation for me US Letter Size American Standard single spaced.After completion of the project, the scholar should send the following documents to the DST: (a) A letter attested by the Research Guide where the scholar is enrolled for the project and (b) A report outlining the objectives and results of the project.The minimum tenure of the project must be six to eight weeks write me an ecology research proposal Bluebook 24 hours single spaced.The minimum tenure of the project must be six to eight weeks.The duration of the project must be clearly mentioned in the project report.The guidelines for the Summer Research Mentorship can be found in this link: The students with age group 17-22 years can apply for application under SHE.
What is SMART CARD? (For 2008-2010 Batches only, not applicable for 2011 batch onwards) The scholarship is given by means of SMART Card to the 2008, 2009 and 2010 Batch students only.Smart card is like any other ATM card, specially designed by the State Bank of India (SBI) to disperse the scholarships to the selected candidates.The scholars can withdraw their scholarship from the SBI ATMs across India.The 2011, 2012 and subsequent batch students need NOT apply for the SMART Card as the scholarship will be released directly to their bank accounts.What documents should I send to receive my SMART card? (For 2008-2010 Batches only, not applicable for 2011 batch onwards) As soon as you receive your offer letter from the DST, the following documents should be sent by the selected scholars of 2008-2010 batches.
The blank format of the e-Z application form can be found here in this link .Self-attested copy of Proof of Residence (Permanent address).Self attested copy of Proof of Photo Identity.
Please do not forget to self attest these documents.
Non-attested documents shall be rejected and will inevitably delay the issue of the SMART card.Also write your INSPIRE registration number on top of the documents you are sending.What documents are acceptable for my Identity and Address proofs? (For 2008-2010 Batches only, not applicable for 2011 batch onwards) The list of documents that are acceptable for the address and identity proof is given :// .You need to provide ONLY ONE document each for address and identity proof.Please do not forget to Self-attest these documents.
Please fill the acknowledgement form we have enclosed and post it to (1) AGM, Institutional Division, New Delhi Main Branch, Parliament Street, New Delhi- 110001 and (2) Ms.Rupashree Dash, DST, Technology Bhawan, New Mehrauli Road New Delhi -110016.Only after the receiving the acknowledgement receipts, the SBI will release the scholarship.Therefore, posting the hard copy of the acknowledgement to the SBI is a must.Each SMART CARD has a maximum limit of only Rs 50,000 at any given time.
2008-2010 batch scholars are therefore advised check their balance periodically and make withdrawals after each re-charge and leave a balance of less than Rs 20,000.This helps SBI re-charge your next installments on your SMART Card.The subsequent installment(s) will be recharged in the next ten to twelve days.I have lost my SMART card and its PIN number.How to obtain a duplicate SMART card? (For 2008-2010 Batches only, not applicable for 2011 batch onwards) (a) If your SMART Card is lost, kindly register a complaint with the local Police Station immediately and contact the SBI to block the SMART Card.
(b) Send a request for a duplicate card along with the photocopy of the registered FIR to Dr.Prasanna, INSPIRE Programme Division, Technology Bhawan, DST, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi- 110016.(c) If your SMART Card is damaged or not working, kindly return the defective card by Post to Dr.The duplicate card will be issued in four to six weeks after the receipt of the defective card.
(d) For loss of T-PIN and other issues, kindly write to Dr.INSPIRE Fellowship, is offered to i) An INSPIRE Scholar who has secured minimum 65% marks or 6.
5 CGPA (in 10 point scale) in aggregate at M.Sc Course , ii) Post Graduate Degrees in Basic & Applied Sciences OR Graduate Degree in Engineering Sciences/ Medical Sciences/ Pharmaceutical Sciences/ Agricultural Sciences/ Veterinary Sciences of any recognized Indian University or Institute/ Statutory Body in India, which is eligible for admission to the PhD Program in any recognized University/ academic Institutions in the country.When can we apply for INSPIRE Fellowship? Beginning of every year the scheme is announced in Newspapers, Websites etc.to seek applications from eligible students in that year and applications are open for submission through-out the year.Processing of received applications would be done on first cum first service basis up to the provision of 1000 INSPIRE Fellowships every year to offer eligible students.Also check our websitefor regular updates.
The online application link can be found here:or atOne can apply for the Fellowship scheme through online or offline modes.However, online mode of application is preferred.To apply online, please visit the link and follow the guidelines as given therein.Is it mandatory to produce the Rank certificate in the INSPIRE Fellowship format or we can submit what we have received from institution? Yes, it is mandatory to produce the Rank certificate in INSPIRE Fellowship Format (Format provided at ).However, there will no scope of accepting any Provisional Rank certificate or marksheet to consider this offer.
What is the selection procedure? Selection for INSPIRE Fellowship shall be purely on the basis of academic merit of the candidate, choice of the Supervisor, Host Institutions and the Research Proposal.Applications would be screened by two levels of screening committees.What is the difference between Provisional Offer and Final Offer of INSPIRE Fellowship? Provisional Offer: Students who are eligible for INSPIRE Fellowship but not admitted for PhD program, would get provisional selection and they will be given one year validity to gain admission into PhD program.Final Offer: Students who are eligible for INSPIRE Fellowship as well as got admitted for PhD program would be given final offer of INSPIRE Fellowship.
What is the tenure of this Fellowship? The Fellowship shall be tenable for a maximum period of five years or completion of the PhD program (i.
up to the date of final defend of the PhD Thesis), whichever is earlier.This includes the tenure of fellowship awarded by any other agencies and availed by the Fellow, prior to availing INSPIRE Fellowship.The fellowship shall be governed by administrative norms and guidelines of Host University during the total tenure.What would be our designation after selection under INSPIRE Fellowship? The entry in INSPIRE Fellowship would be only as JRF/JRF-P there is no any direct entry into SRF/SRF-P.
The Junior Research Fellow (JRF) or Senior Research Fellow (SRF) under this scheme shall be termed as 'INSPIRE Fellow'.INSPIRE Fellows with 3+2 duration of graduation and post graduation degrees, will be eligible for Junior Research Fellowship in basic science (JRF) and with 4+2 duration will be eligible for Junior Research Fellowship in Professional Science (JRF-P).What is the amount of Fellowship? The Fellowship shall be governed through the Office Memorandum of this Ministry of Number A.20020/11/97-IFD dated 6th August 2007 and 31st March 2010 /whats new/whats new10/ and shall be liable to be revised from time to time as per Government Order.Medical Benefits and other allowances would also be governed by this memorandum.
However, the HRA to the Fellows shall also be applicable as per GoI norms i.30% or 20% or 10%, depending upon the location of the Host Institution.What are the norms for contingency Expenditure? Expenditure of contingency grant would be governed as per host institution norms.The unspent balance of contingency grant at the end of a year may be carried forward to the next year.
Where will be the amount of Fellowship transferred? Fellowship amount to selected students transfers to the host-institution where students are pursuing PhD program.The Sanction Letter regarding the Fellowship Fund transfer would be sent to student as well as to Host University.What is this CPSMS? The Central Plan Scheme Monitoring System (CPSMS) is a Central Sector Plan Scheme of the Planning Commission which is being implemented by the Office of Controller General of Accounts in partnership with National Informatics Centre.The scheme has established a common transaction-based on-line fund management and payment system and MIS for the Plan Schemes of Government of India.The Effective Date of availing INSPIRE Fellowship would be as under: Fresh applicants who have already taken admission into PhD course prior to submission of application, the date of acceptance or joining or switching over from any other fellowship to INSPIRE Fellowship will be the Effective Date.
However in any case the Effective Date would not be given earlier than the date of application received at the DST.Applicant who will be placed under “Provisional Selection (P)” or “Clarification (P1)” or “Rejection (R )” category during the selection process and subsequently issued “Final Offer” by gaining admission into PhD or by virtue of accepting clarification/ representation at the DST-INSPIRE, the date of issuing Final Offer” will be the Effective Date” for the INSPIRE Fellowship.If student fails to submit the acceptance of Final Offer within 3 months from the date of issuing the Final offer, the effective date would be given only after the date of approval of submitted documents and if fails to submit acceptance of Final Offer even within 6 months from the Final offer date, the INSPIRE Fellowship Offer shall be forfeited.Back To Top What is the procedure to transfer the Fellowship from one host institute to another host institute? Please confirm your host institution very carefully to activate your INSPIRE Fellowship.An INSPIRE Fellow once accepted the offer for implementing Fellowship at a particular University/ Institute/ Laboratory in the country shall not be allowed for transferring the Fellowship to any other University/ Institute / Laboratory in the country during 5 years of Fellowship tenure.
However, in unavoidable situation for continuation of PhD works, the Fellow must seek prior permission from DST-INSPIRE Program Division for transferring/ shifting of Host Institute through written applications with following documents: 1.No Objection Certificates (NOCs) from both Host Institutes and Research Supervisors, 2.Detailed Justifications for changing / shifting of Host Institute for implementation of Fellowship, 3.Area of PhD works with an up to date technical Progress Report, 4.CV of the Research Supervisor at the new Host Institute, 5.
Up to date Financial Statement from the old Host Institute However, shifting/ change of Host Institute without prior approval from DSTINSPIRE may be called for withdrawn of the INSPIRE Fellowship.Moreover, such shifting/ change of Host Institute may be allowed only one time in 5 years period of Fellowship tenure and within one year of effective of Fellowship at that Host Institute.If INSPIRE fellow leaves without permission, stipend due at any time shall not be paid to him/her by the Institution, till all University and other dues are cleared and certified by the University/Institution.Responsibility in such cases shall be that of the University/Institution concerned.I am in Government service but I have the eligibility for INSPIRE Fellowship, am I eligible for INSPIRE Fellowship or not? With the prior permission (Leave without pay, at least for three years) from the Employer to pursue PhD program, you can apply for INSPIRE Fellowship for doing PhD.
(During the tenure of INSPIRE Fellowship, the Fellow should not be entitled for any payment from the Employer).I am already receiving other fellowship what should I do for switching over to INSPIRE Fellowship? When you receive the Final offer under INSPIRE Fellowship please resign from the previous fellowship for switching over into INSPIRE Fellowship and put these details into Acceptance letter (Format provided at ).Please do not resign unless you receive the Final Offer of INSPIRE Fellowship.I have received an invitation for doing a short internship program which is relevant to my PhD degree, Can I avail this short term internship during my INSPIRE Fellowship tenure? INSPIRE Fellow shall be allowed for availing short-term Research Internship activities at any national or international Laboratory/ University/ Institute up to a maximum period of 18 months either in one or multiple slots during 5 years of Fellowship tenure.However, the Fellow shall be required to inform DST-INSPIRE along with recommendation of PhD Research Supervisor as well as confirmation from Research Internship provider for obtaining prior permission.
In the event that the Fellow receives financial support of the overseas institution, the INSPIRE Fellowship for the period of Overseas stay will not be remitted.I have to attend an International Conference, would INSPIRE Fellowship pay to and fro journey fare charges? There is no such provision of payment of fare charges of any international or national conference during the tenure.However, you may seek financial support through other sources.What should be done for getting next installment of my Fellowship? INSPIRE Fellows need to submit Utilization Certificate, Statement of Expenditure, Claim Bill and Annual Report as per the formats available at , at the end of every year through Host Institute for receiving the next installment.The up-gradation of Fellowship status i.
Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) to Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) would normally be considered after two (2) years of INSPIRE Fellowship at JRF level through performance assessment on the progress made in the PhD program.However, this performance assessment can also be conducted at any time after completion of one year at JRF level with acceptance of at least one publication (1st Authorship) in any peer-reviewed journal by the INSPIRE Fellow out of the PhD work done at that Host Institute (within one year).What is the procedure of up gradation from JRF/JRF-P to SRF/SRF-P? For up-gradation of Fellowship status, a three (3) Members Committee needs to be constituted by the Host Institute’s Vice-Chancellor of the University/ Director of the Institute to assess the progress of concerned INSPIRE Fellow.
The composition of said Committee would be one Member (drawn from the list of Chair-Persons & Expert Members available at the INSPIRE Website /List of Chairpersons ,)besides the Research Supervisor of the concerned INSPIRE Fellow and one Internal Faculty as Member of the Committee.
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The assessment shall be carried out by the Host Institute/ University as per above process and upon assessment, the Research Supervisor shall be required to submit the `Assessment Report’ (Format available at ) of the Committee along with the progress Report of the concerned Fellow to DST-INSPIRE Division for further actions.The expenditure related to such assessment shall not be borne under DST INSPIRE.(Please note at least one of the three members of the committee should be drawn from outside the host institution Motta Alfredo Dissertation About Role Of Science In Daily Life.(Please note at least one of the three members of the committee should be drawn from outside the host institution.
The costs for such assessment shall not be provided by INSPIRE.
In case of conducting assessment after 2 years positioning as JRF, the date of assessment shall be considered as the effective date for SRF.Otherwise, the effective date would be only after the completion of eligible period as JRF They must have professionals in all academic fields so that your should not be developed by a physics expert instead of a person with an M, BA. As much as Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott begun in 1955 ends after 381 days, drawing national and international attention, and propels Martin Luther King, Jr. david foster .Otherwise, the effective date would be only after the completion of eligible period as JRF.However, there will be no scope for retrospective effect in any situation.I got the Job please tell me what is the procedure to discontinue my INSPIRE Fellowship? You have to submit complete financial statements (SE & UC) with Completion report.Any unspent amount should be returned by Demand Draft in Favor of “DDO, DST” Payable at New Delhi”.
(Format of SE, UC, Annual Report and claim bill is available at ) I have completed my PhD under INSPIRE Fellowship, What next to do? You have to submit complete financial statements (SE & UC) with thesis soft copy (Only in CD).Any unspent amount should be returned by Demand Draft in Favor of “DDO, DST” Payable at New Delhi”.I am INSPIRE Fellow, I got a government job.Can I join my job and hold my INSPIRE fellowship for some period? I want to join INSPIRE Fellowship again after completing my probation period of job, with permission from Employer? If you join government job, there is no such provision of holding INSPIRE Fellowship and rejoining again after some period.Your Fellowship will be discontinued from the date of joining of job.
Then you need to follow the procedure of discontinuation of the INSPIRE Fellowship.(Procedure given in 24th point) The bank detail submission page consists of a selected bank details list already approved by DST.If you select the required bank detail from the list, you do not have to wait for its approval and can move forward I was awarded final offer of INSPIRE Fellowship.I had to upload bank details then Joining cum acceptance within one month of Fellowship Final offer.How to upload now? If selected INSPIRE Fellow fails to produce Acceptance within one month of date of offer letter issued, their offer will be forfeited and online system will not allow them to enter again in online process.Back To Top My provisional offer validity is now over.I could not upload my PhD admission documents in online portal.Please suggest how to upload now? This is an automated system.If student fails to upload his/ her PhD admission documents within validity, the portal will get closed and then he/ she will now be able to upload PhD admission documents for final offer.
In that case his/ her provisional offer will be forfeited.Back To Top I had filled my Bank details after receiving Final offer and waiting for its approval.How would I know that my documents are approved? Once you submitted your Bank details you need to regularly check your portal whether your link for Joining cum Acceptance is opening.If it started opening that means your Bank details are approved and you need to fill and upload Joining cum Acceptance.Back To Top Whether Re-evaluation of any rejected application is possibleor not? If so, details process Within 7 days of notifying the results for Stage-2 evaluations, in case any candidate whose application is rejected at that stage may be allowed for re-evaluation.
However re-evaluation would be done only on the existing all documents including Research Proposal available with the Portal.No new documents would be possible to accept for the re-evaluation aspects like i).Such Requests shall be made by the candidate within 7 days through email only to us (to the email id: INSPIRE Faculty Scheme INSPIRE Faculty Scheme INSPIRE Faculty Scheme is a component under Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE), which is a flagship programme of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.It offers a contractual research awards to young achievers and opportunity for independent research in the near term and emerge as a leader in future science & technology.The guideline of this component is available at .Who can apply for INSPIRE Faculty Scheme? What are the eligibility criteria for availing INSPIRE Faculty Scheme? Indian citizens and people of Indian origin including NRI/PIO status with PhD (in science, mathematics, engineering, pharmacy, medicine, and agriculture related subjects) from any recognized university in the world.Those who have submitted their PhD Theses and are awaiting award of the degree are also eligible.
However, the award will be conveyed only after confirmation of the awarding the PhD degree.What is the tenure of INSPIRE Faculty Scheme? The INSPIRE Faculty Award is tenable for a maximum period of 5 (five) years and no further extension will be given as per existing rules.When should I apply for INSPIRE Faculty Scheme? Calls for applications are advertised two times in a year i.Also check our websitefor regular updates.The online application link can be found here: or ator at.What is the number of INSPIRE Faculty Award per year? The Scheme provides a provision of maximum 1000 INSPIRE Faculty Awards per year subject to rigorous and transparent criteria basis met by the potential aspirants.How should I apply for INSPIRE Faculty Scheme?One can apply for the faculty scheme through online or offline modes.
However, online mode of application is preferred.
To apply online, please follow this link here.What are the different modes of application for INSPIRE Faculty Scheme? Three routes i.Direct, Nomination and Institution mode are available for applying by the eligible candidates.Call for applications are advertised two times in a year for Direct and Nomination mode.
However, Institute mode applications can be submitted throughout the year.How can I apply for ‘Institute’ mode? Under `Institution Mode’ candidates may directly approach reputed academic institutes and the host academic Institute shall be required to adopt their own internal process and mechanism as available, before forwarding names of short-listed candidates for final selection by the Apex Committee.List of Chairpersons and Members for Institute mode is available at .How can I apply for ‘Nomination’ mode? Nominations from academic institutions or Industry R&D through Vice-Chancellors/ Directors of Institutions/ Head of Institutions/ Presidents and Fellows of Science Academies or Eminent Scientists from India and Abroad based on personal knowledge needs to be sent in a sealed envelope to Indian National Science Academy (INSA), New Delhi.What is the upper age limit? Is there any age relaxation? The upper age limit as on last date of submission of application should be 32 years.
However, for SC and ST candidates upper age limit will be 35 years.How much is the amount of INSPIRE Faculty Award? Each Awardee shall receive compensation of Rs 80,000/- per month with 3.3% increment every year which is equivalent to that of an Assistant Professor of an IIT at the time of entry along with Rs 35 lakh (at the rate of Rs 7 lakh per year) of Research Grant for 5 years.How can I utilize the Research Grant? The Research Grant of Rs.35 lakh for 5 years at the rate of Rs 7 lakh per year shall be trifurcated into three broad budget heads with the following Break-up: Recurring (Research Staff Cost , Travel, Consumables & Contingencies) - 60% Capital Equipment - 35% However, Travel and Contingencies would be limited to 10% each.
Each Awardee needs to provide proposal with detailed break up as above for utilization of Research Grant to DST-INSPIRE.Awardee/ Host Institution needs to adhere the approved break up for entire period of 5 years.I am already having a permanent position.Am I eligible to apply? Candidates who are employed (in any form i.permanent, contractual) with any organization within India will be eligible to apply.However, they will be considered only for the Research Grant component of the INSPIRE Faculty Award scheme.What happens to my Award amount, if I get a permanent position during Award tenure? When an Awardee finds a permanent position during the Award tenure of 5 years, the Award amount shall be discontinued from the day the Awardee joins the permanent position.But the awardee may continue with the INSPIRE Faculty Scheme availing only the Research Grant for the balance period to carry out research at the new position.Whether there is any provision for taking research staff out of the Research Grant? Provision is available for supporting a research staff out of Research Grant support during the award tenure of 5 years.
In the event of getting employment elsewhere other than the present Host Institute, the Awardee could also be allowed to move the research student along with him/her to new place within the country.During the tenure of Faculty Award can I apply for projects from other funding agencies? The INSPIRE Faculty is eligible for applying for any competitive grants from all funding agencies during the tenure of the INSPIRE Faculty position and would be favorably considered by DST for future support at the end of 5 years based on performance and technical merit.During the tenure of Faculty Award can I make National or International visits? Awardee shall be eligible to undertake short-term visit at any national or international Laboratory/ University/ Institute for further exposure and training to carry out research activities up to a maximum period of 18 months either in one or multiple slots during 5 years of Award tenure.However, this period will be treated as part of the Award period and it can be availed only after one year of positioning at the Host Institute.Where can I implement the INSPIRE Faculty Award? The INSPIRE Faculty Award is generally required to be implemented at any recognized Institute/ University/ Laboratory in the country other than the Institute/ University/ Laboratory where the candidate has completed his/her PhD degree.
What is the method employed for Selection? Indian National Science Academy (INSA), New Delhi in coordination with DST implements this INSPIRE Faculty Scheme up to the selection of candidates for awarding INSPIRE Faculty Award.Discipline-based Expert Committee in case of candidates under `Direct’ and `Nomination’ routes and Institutional level short-listing in `Institutional route’ followed by final selection by the Apex Level Committee.Discipline-wise committees of INSA evaluate and shortlist the candidates who apply through Direct and Nominated Routes without support from host-institutions.
Reputed academic institutions enjoying the status of Centre of Excellence like IITs, IISc, IISERs, TIFR, CSIR Laboratories etc.and Central & State Universities selected under PURSE scheme of DST could employ their own internal processes to short-list candidates and submit the list for final selection by the Apex Committee.The Apex Committee shall finally select short-listed candidates for offering INSPIRE Faculty Award under this Scheme and decision of the Apex Committee for selecting candidates in this Scheme shall be the final.Candidates, who have not identified host institutions at the time of their application, should do so immediately after their final selection.All selected candidates should avail the INSPIRE Faculty Award within 3 months of their final selection.
What are the roles and requirements of Host Institutions? Host institutions should be encouraged to provide a congenial atmosphere for the awardees to excel in their work, and should view them as potential assets for faculty development Under no circumstances the “INSPIRE Faculty” Award is renewable after 5 years.Host-institutions are expected to consider “INSPIRE Faculty” for permanent positions in due course, subject to meeting institutions’ performance assessment criteria.In-breeding by host-institution is generally not encouraged.However, in case host-institutions are willing to nominate their own PhD students under this Scheme, specific justifications and commitment for development of independent directions of research should be clearly delineated.Host Institute shall provide access to all common infrastructural facilities including equipments, Computational facility and library, acceptable laboratory and office space during the tenure of the Award.
Host Institute assumes to undertake the financial and other management responsibilities for implementation of the INSPIRE Faculty Award for 5 years on behalf of the Awardee and shall be responsible for all accounting purposes with the DST-INSPIRE Program.Host Institute will be required to provide Financial Statements every year to consider releasing next installment to Awardee.Minimum information/ commitment required from Host Institutions? Access to all common infrastructural facilities, acceptable laboratory and office space ( independently or on shared basis), computing, library access, etc., Information on whether desirable new areas/directions of research are being introduced through this scheme, Information on whether the INSPIRE Faculty will be allowed to supervise PhD students, hire research fellows, independently or jointly with a permanent faculty member, Host-institution’s willingness to consider the candidate for a permanent position in due course, subject to meeting statutory requirements.
How many numbers of days leave am I entitled in a year? During the tenure an awardee will be governed by rules and regulations of Host Institute regarding all types of leave or any other matters related to Faculty Award.
Award amount is consolidated (all inclusive).Break-up will not be feasible to provide.How will I receive Award amount and Research Grant after submitting required documents?The Faculty Award amount and Research Grant will be transferred to the Host Institute annually.Copy of the sanction letter will be sent to awardee as well as Host Institute.When to submit reports and when evaluation will be done? Awardee shall be required to submit Annual Progress Report to DST- Indian National Science Academy (INSA) INSPIRE Cell.
Performance evaluation at the end of two (2) and 4 (four) years shall be done on the progress of research achieved by a national level Expert Committee and further continuation of support to each Awardee shall depend upon the performance assessment by the Committee.What I need to do to get next installment? Awardees need to submit Utilization Certificate, Statement of Expenditure and Annual Report as per the formats available at , at the end of every year through Host Institute for receiving the next installment.