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IIE Publications International Education Guides Resources and Directories International Partnerships Dec 12, 2017 Despite the global spread of democracy following the end of the Cold War, dictatorships still rule about one-third of the world’s countries.The persistence of authoritarian governments poses a challenge for the international community on a variety of fronts: dictatorships are more likely to repress their citizens, instigate wars, and perpetrate mass killing, among others.
This challenge is even more pressing given the gradual decline in the number of democracies worldwide over the last decade IIE Publications Institute of International Education.This challenge is even more pressing given the gradual decline in the number of democracies worldwide over the last decade.
Practitioners confront critical questions about which strategies are likely to pave the way for democratization versus which are likely to stifle it.Nov 16, 2017 The third report from our 10-year impact study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Leaders, Contexts, and Complexities paints a complex picture that highlights the opportunities of the IFP experience against challenges posed by local realities in three Latin American countries.Oct 31, 2017 Underrepresented Students in US Study Abroad: Investigating Impacts synthesizes existing research on the association of study abroad with positive academic outcomes for minority and other underrepresented students, with the goal of ultimately helping enhance pathways of access to study abroad for all students.Oct 26, 2017 Open Doors® is the only long-standing, comprehensive information resource on international students and scholars in the United States and on American students studying abroad for academic credit.
Oct 1, 2017 A World on the Move highlights key developments currently influencing student mobility in higher education in the United States and globally laboratory report.Oct 1, 2017 A World on the Move highlights key developments currently influencing student mobility in higher education in the United States and globally.Sep 30, 2017 Gaining an Employment Edge: The Impact of Study Abroad on 21st Century Skills & Career Prospects investigates the connection between study abroad programs and the development of skills that contribute to employment and career development in today’s workforce.Sep 22, 2017 This literature review—produced by a team of political scientists, geographers, and an anthropologist from the University of Colorado—synthesizes scholarship from diverse research traditions on the following Learning Agenda question: How can citizens keep civic space from shrinking? What enables civic and political participation in countries where civil liberties have been lost? How do forms of civic and political engagement in such contexts differ from forms of engagement in contexts in which civil liberties are protected? Are some forms of civic and political engagement generally more tolerated in newly repressive contexts than others? How do civic actors adapt their engagement tactics to achieve their objectives? Sep 22, 2017 This literature review—produced by a team of political scientists, sociologists, and lawyers from the University of Minnesota—synthesizes scholarship from diverse research traditions on the following Learning Agenda question: What are the consequences of human rights awareness campaigns? What makes a human rights awareness campaign successful? Why do many campaigns fail? What are the unintended negative consequences of both successful and failed campaigns? How do local norms and other cultural factors constrain or enable the translation of campaigns from one context to another? Sep 21, 2017 This literature review—produced by a team of sociologists and political scientists from Brown University—synthesizes scholarship from diverse research traditions on the following Learning Agenda question: How and when does grassroots reform scale up? When citizen participation has led to local reforms in a particular sector (e., health), what processes lead to these reforms’ influencing the regional or national levels of that sector (e.
, citizen groups monitoring medicine supplies in local clinics leads eventually to pharmaceutical procurement reform in the Ministry of Health)? Jul 28, 2017 There is an acute need for methods of detecting and investigating fraud in elections, because the consequences of electoral fraud are grave for democratic stability and quality.When the electoral process is compromised by fraud, intimidation, or even violence, elections can become corrosive and destabilizing—sapping support for democratic institutions; inflaming suspicion; and stimulating demand for extra-constitutional means of pursuing political agendas, including violence.Accurate information about irregularities can help separate false accusations from evidence of electoral malfeasance.Accurate information about the scope of irregularities can also provide a better gauge of election quality.
Finally, accurate information about the geographic location of malfeasance—the locations where irregularities occurred and how they cluster—can allow election monitors and pro-democracy organizations to focus attention and resources more efficiently and to substantiate their assessments of electoral quality.Apr 28, 2017 People gather in structured, if informal, community groups for many reasons—social, such as a book club or softball league; economic, such as a team hosting a fundraiser for a member’s medical expenses; or political, such as neighbors meeting to address flooding caused by poor infrastructure.But how does participating in such groups affect people’s well-being or decisions to work for other community improvements? Level of political knowledge? Level of trust toward group members, people in the broader community, or institutions such as the government? Or willingness to tolerate differences that are often at the root of conflict, such as ethnicity and religion? Professors Jaimie Bleck from the University of Notre Dame and Philippe LeMay-Boucher from Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with Jacopo Bonan from Catholic University of the Sacred Heart and Bassirou Sarr from the Paris School of Economics, worked to answer these questions by studying community groups called grins that meet in neighborhoods across Mali’s cities.Nov 1, 2016 What are the effects of Chinese investment and development projects on the perceived legitimacy of African states? In recent years, China has dramatically increased the size and scope of its aid to and investment in sub-Saharan Africa; the differences in China’s approach to aid, compared to the Western model, have ignited debate about whether Chinese aid negatively affects governance and government legitimacy in the recipient country.In this paper, a research team led by The College of William and Mary tested this proposition in rural and urban Liberia.
The research combined a public opinion survey; a survey experiment presenting one of three vignettes describing the roles of Chinese aid, US aid, or the Liberian government in service provision and corruption in Liberia; and an experimental game that measured how voluntary tax compliance—a standard measure of government within the academic literature—was affected by exposure to one of the same three vignettes.Both survey experiment and experimental games included a control group, for participants who were not read a vignette, and the vignettes were identical except for the name of the actor (China, US, or the Liberian government).May 13, 2015 Democratic backsliding is a challenge USAID faces worldwide, in many contexts.Degradation in the quality, functioning, and experience of democracy and democratic rights negatively affects international development goals, in all sectors.The continued decline in democratic governance around the world raises new questions about how DRG practitioners and scholars understand and confront backsliding.
Is backsliding simply democratization in reverse? What makes countries vulnerable to backsliding? Which democratic practices and institutions are most at risk? How can DRG programs respond to or mitigate closing political space? Models for U.Study Abroad to Indonesia (2012) Models for U.Study Abroad to Indonesia presents best practices for U.
practitioners developing sustainable study abroad programs to Indonesia and is the culmination of the U.-Indonesia Partnership Program for Study Abroad Capacity (USIPP), sponsored by the U.Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.A Parent Guide to Study Abroad Critical information parents need to inform themselves and to support their high school or college student as he or she navigates the study abroad experience A Process for Screening and Authorizing Joint and Double Degree Programs With the current focus on strategic internationalization and institutional partnerships, joint and double degree programs are becoming increasingly attractive to higher education institutions around the world.Written by three leading study abroad experts, this guide offers the most comprehensive advice available.A Survey of Policy Changes: Foreign Students in Public Institutions of Higher Education In October 1981, the Institute of International Education (IIE) published a survey report on recent policy changes towards foreign students in public institutions of higher education.A Survey of Policy Changes: Foreign Students in Public Institutions of Higher Education 1983-1985 In 1981 and 1983, the Institute of International Education published a survey report on recent policy changes towards foreign students in public institutions of higher education.
Absence of Decision: Foreign Students in American Colleges and Universities The annual census by the Institute of International Education (HE) indicated that there were more than 300,000 foreigners with student visas enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States.Advising International Students in an Age of Anxiety This White Paper from the Institute of International Education (IIE) shares initial information on steps taken by U.campuses and higher education associations in support of students from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) currently enrolled or hoping to study in the United States.As Others See Us: A Comparison of Japanese and American Fulbrighters This is a study of the experiences and present attitudes of Japanese and American Fulbrighters who went to the United States and Japan during the period 1951-90.
Asia: The Next Higher Education Superpower? (2015) Ninth in the Global Education Research Reports series, published by IIE and the AIFS Foundation, Asia: The Next Higher Education Superpower? critically examines the local and global trends driving higher education policies in Asia and their impact on the local and regional knowledge economies.Attitudes and Perceptions of Prospective International Students from India (2010) This IIE Briefing Paper examines the attitudes and perceptions of the U.of prospective international students from India, and is the second report in a series of attitudinal surveys of students from key sending countries.Attitudes and Perceptions of Prospective International Students from Vietnam (2010) This IIE Briefing Paper examines the attitudes and perceptions of prospective international students from Vietnam and is the first in a series of attitudinal surveys of students from key sending countries.
Beyond Borders: Measuring Academic Mobility between the United States and Mexico Mexico’s Patlani project and the U.-based Open Doors®, conducted by the Institute of International Education (IIE) with the support of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.Department of State, together provide a thorough representation of the majority of the academic mobility that occurs between the two counties.
Boon or Bane: Foreign Graduate Students in U.Engineering Programs Colleges and universities in the United States have for many years welcomed foreign students with positive expectations concerning the contributions these foreign students are likely to make to the quality of education and with only vague concerns that the economic costs of foreign students may outweigh the benefits.Brazil Scientific Mobility Undergraduate Program in the United States (2012) In July 2011, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff announced the creation of a new scholarship program known as Ci ncia sem Fronteiras, a multiyear initiative to send 75,000 fully funded Brazilian students abroad for training in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, with an additional 25,000 scholarships expected to be funded by the private sector.
Brazil Scientific Mobility Undergraduate Program in the United States (2013) In July 2011, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff announced the creation of a new scholarship program known as Ci ncia sem Fronteiras, a multiyear initiative to send 75,000 fully funded Brazilian students abroad for training in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, with an additional 25,000 scholarships expected to be funded by the private sector.
International Educational Exchange Patricia Chow, Senior Program Officer for Research and Evaluation at the Institute of International Education, presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Forum of the Brazilian Universities Accessories to International Matters (FAUBAI), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil from April 14 to 17, 2010.Building Research and Teaching Capacity in Indonesia through International Collaboration (2013) This briefing paper, “Building Research and Teaching Capacity in Indonesia through International Collaboration,” published by the Institute of International Education’s Center for International Partnerships, provides a detailed, data-driven look at the research and teaching capacity of Indonesian universities.-Ethiopian University Partnerships (2011) This IIE White Paper serves as a useful follow-up to the December 2010 “Building Sustainable U.-Ethiopian University Partnerships” conference in Addis Ababa, which brought together higher education administrators and faculty from the U.and Ethiopia to consider the mutual interests that tertiary institutions in both countries have in forming greater linkages.Charting New Pathways to Higher Education This report, the first in a new series on Key Issues in Academic Mobility, was produced by IIE’s Center for Academic Mobility Research with the support of the U.Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.and Foreign Student Views of Graduate Engineering Education In the 1980s, the annual percentage of foreign graduate students in U.engineering programs had exceeded 40% and the proportion of doctorates awarded to non-U.Choosing Schools From Afar: The Selection of Colleges and Universities in the United States by Foreign Students It is the purpose of this research project to ascertain some of the factors influencing the decisions made by these foreign students and to identify the salience of different factors for subsets of the foreign student population.Higher Education Classification in the Middle East and North Africa While the number of global and country-level ranking and classification systems continues to expand, a regional classification and assessment of higher education institutions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has not been developed.Cuba Travel Restrictions Following the recent broadening of diplomatic dialogue between the United States and Cuba, IIE has launched a Cuba Higher Education Initiative.00 Daring to be Different: The Choice of Nonconventional Fields of Study by International Women It is important for the study to identify the relationship between the women's view of gender in society and their levels of feminism, on the one hand, and the selection of a non-conventional field of study.Decline and Renewal: Causes and Cures of Decay Among Foreign-Trained Intellectuals and Professionals in the Third World This report includes findings conducted in Mexico, Indonesia, and Turkey during 1984 and 1985 to provide better understanding of the problem of intellectual and professional decay.Demand for Study Overseas by American Students and Employers The international student market continues to grow with forecasts predicting that this will continue for many decades to come.Educational Exchange between the United States and China (2008) This IIE Briefing Paper examines the current state of U.-China educational exchange and presents the variety of study abroad program offerings and existing funding opportunities for American students wishing to study or conduct research in China.English-Taught Master's Programs in Europe A new briefing paper published by IIE's Center for Academic Mobility Research suggests that the number of English-taught Master's Programs in Europe has increased significantly since 2011.Enhancing the Quality of English Language Education in Ethiopia This IIE briefing paper serves as a useful follow-up to the March 2012 “Enhancing the Quality of English Language Education in Ethiopia” future search conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Equipping New University Presidents to Lead Effectively in the Developing World (2015) This paper, prepared by Wilfred B.Brewer, President of Performance-Solutions-Group, Inc.
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, and Mahboob Mahmood, Founder and CEO of Knowledge Platform, provides lessons from the 2014 WISE Leadership Conference in Doha, Qatar.Evaluating and Measuring the Impact of Citizen Diplomacy This report provides an overview of the current landscape of evaluating citizen diplomacy programs, taking a look at the methodology and findings of evaluations of an array of such initiatives in the United States.Trending Topics Survey: Over the past year, international educators expressed concern that the political discourse surrounding foreign nationals in the U 28 Nov 2013 - The classic counterpart to a CV, cover letters are standard in almost all job applications. Academic cover letters are typically allowed to be longer than in other sectors, but this latitude comes with its own pitfalls. For one, many My PhD is the first full-length study of this topic [so what?]. Better: In recent .Trending Topics Survey: Over the past year, international educators expressed concern that the political discourse surrounding foreign nationals in the U.
presidential election could be damaging to international student recruitment efforts.International Education as an Institutional Priority To remain competitive, our nation’s higher education must keep pace with the rapid globalization of our society over the last few decades, made possible by ever more rapid flows of ideas, technology, people, and information.International Exchange Off-Campus: Foreign Students and Local Communities Every year, more than 300,000 foreign students are enrolled in colleges and universities across the United States, yet very little is known about their contacts with the resident population Best website to buy college case study education plagiarism free Academic 20 pages / 5500 words A4 (British/European) University.International Exchange Off-Campus: Foreign Students and Local Communities Every year, more than 300,000 foreign students are enrolled in colleges and universities across the United States, yet very little is known about their contacts with the resident population.International Expertise in American Business: How to Learn to Play with the Kids on the Street The Institute of International Education is pleased to publish this study as a component of its research program, and more particularly as one of several efforts to examine the impact of international educational experiences on business careers.
International Investment in Human Capital: Overseas Education for Development Overseas education for development is a notion that is based on a shared belief among the older, industrialized, high-income countries and the new nations emerging out of the former colonies that the old had much to teach and the new much to learn.International Students in the United States In conjunction with the Academic Cooperation Association (ACA) , IIE coordinated this survey among international students in the U.on their attitudes towards higher education in the U.
, and their motivations in choosing a college or university in the U.Investing in the Future: Rebuilding Higher Education in Myanmar Investing in the Future: Rebuilding Higher Education in Myanmar focuses on the historic U.higher education delegation to Myanmar in February 2013.
Japan-US Women Leaders Dialogue In order to stimulate greater dialogue among women in United States and Japan, the Institute of International Education initiated the Japan-U.Women Leaders Dialogue in cooperation with the Japan Center for International Exchange and with support from the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership.Joint and Double Degree Programs This report, published in November 2009 by the Institute of International Education (IIE) and Freie Universit t Berlin, features articles and insights from higher education administrators and practitioners on both sides of the Atlantic who are seeking to equip their students with the international experience, perspective and skills to succeed in today’s global economy.Joint and Double Degree Programs in the Global Context Joint and Double Degree Programs in the Global Context assesses the current landscape of joint and double degree programs and identifies the challenges, opportunities, motivations, and impact of developing such programs.
Joint and Double Degree Programs in the Transatlantic Context This report examines the key findings of an extensive survey conducted by the Institute of International Education (IIE) and Freie Universit t Berlinin in spring 2008.95 Learn by Doing Learn by Doing: Expanding International Internships/Work Abroad Opportunities for U.STEM Students is the outcome of a special workshop held in April 2012 in Washington, DC, to explore internship and work abroad programs in the STEM fields, specifically creating, maintaining, funding and assessing these programs.
Mentors and Supervisors: Doctoral Advising of Foreign and U.Graduate Students Evidence has accumulated over the past several decades indicating that the highest hurdle of the doctoral program is the completion of the thesis or dissertation.Students Pursuing Degrees Abroad New Frontiers: U.Students Pursuing Degrees Abroad, a new report from the Institute of International Education (IIE), presents findings from a 2-year analysis of key destinations and fields of study of U.students who choose to pursue degree programs abroad.
Obligation or Opportunity: Foreign Student Policy in Six Major Receiving Countries Despite the many similarities in foreign student policy in the major receiving countries, there are also significant variations from country to country in historical background, current issues, enrollment trends and data, and foreign student policies and practices.95 Shifting Tides Understanding International Student Yield for Fall 2017 subtitle This survey of U.college and university admissions officers, taken in the summer of 2017, concludes that international students are still interested in attending higher education institutions in the United States despite the current environment.
Social Justice and Sustainable Change: The Impacts of Higher Education Yielding the first findings from our 10-year impact study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Social Justice and Sustainable Change shows that funding the post-graduate academic pursuits of emerging social justice leaders from marginalized groups leads to significant, measurable benefits for communities and organizations in their countries and throughout the world.Social Justice Leaders in Action: IFP Impacts in Asia The second report from our 10-year impact study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Social Justice Leaders in Action provides an in-depth look at the lives and careers of IFP alumni in three Asian countries detailing the different pathways alumni have taken and the ways they have leveraged their skills and networks to affect change.Sponsorship and Leverage: Sources of Support and Field of Study Decisions of Students from Developing Countries This study aims to improve understanding of the effects of one key incentive in foreign student field of study choices— the source of financing.95 Supporting Displaced and Refugee Students in Higher Education Conflict, war and the effects of climate change have and will continue to displace millions of people around the globe, including university and college students.
Talking to Themselves: The Search for Rights & Responsibilities of the Press and the Mass Media in Four Latin American Nations Over the last decade or so one of the most important aspects of the development process has been a transition of many less developed countries to democracy and a free market system, especially in Latin America but also in selected parts of Africa and Asia.The Boren Awards: A Report of Oral Language Proficiency Gains During Academic Study Abroad The Boren Awards: A Report of Oral Language Proficiency Gains during Academic Study Abroad explores the language gains made by U.undergraduate and graduate students who received Boren Scholarships and Fellowships for language study overseas between 1996 and 2011.NAFSA hosted its 2009 Annual Conference on The Economic Impact of International Students from a Cross-National Perspective.
The Economics of Foreign Students A fundamental theme of this essay is that the economic implications of foreign students in U.institutions of higher education cannot be assessed independently of the broader economic context and status of the higher education sector.The Foreign Student Factor: Their Impact on American Higher Education Over the last two decades there have been many studies examining issues related to the presence of international students in American institutions of higher education.IIENetworker Magazine In the Fall 2017 issue of the IIENetworker magazine, IIE experts share the ways in which they are joining with partners around the world to expand international opportunities for all.
The ITT International Fellowship Program: An Assessment After Ten Years The assessment confirms what many of us have long assumed to be true, that the ITT Fellowship Program is a great success.Community College Model: This IIE White Paper, sponsored by the U.
Embassy in India, was developed in advance of the Higher Education Dialogue held in June 2013 in New Delhi, India.The Value of International Education to U.Business and Industry Leaders: Study abroad experience is widely recognized among senior management as having the potential to cultivate valued skills and desirable personal qualities in new recruits.The War Follows Them The crisis in Syria continues to have a devastating impact on professors, university students, and the education sector, not only in Syria but also in the neighboring countries that are hosting more than 3 million Syrian refugees.
The World is the New Classroom: Non-Credit Education Abroad In The World is the New Classroom: Non-Credit Education Abroad, IIE captures a range of NCEA activities—from conducting research or field work to engaging in the performing arts.Three-Year Bologna-Compliant Degrees Ten years ago, in June 1999, a group of 29 European Ministers signed the Bologna Declaration with the goal of establishing the European Area of Higher Education by 2010 and promoting the European system of higher education world-wide.Towards Transnational Competence: Rethinking International Education A U.-Japan Case Study This study, supported by the U.
-Japan Foundation and universities in both countries, focuses on the examples of the United States and Japan, two of the dominant economies of the late 20th century.and Australian International Student Data Collection The Institute of International Education's Center for Academic Mobility Research is pleased to announce the publication of a new briefing paper: U.
and Australian International Student Data Collection: Key Differences and Practices.Students Abroad: Statistics on Study Abroad 1985/86 This new publication documents the growth of one of the most vibrant segments of American academic life in recent years — study abroad, or the movement of American students in pursuit of education overseas.
Students in China: Meeting the Goals of the 100,000 Strong Initiative U.Students in China: Meeting the Goals of the 100,000 Strong Initiative presents findings from a pilot study to capture the full breadth of U.
student participation in education abroad activities in China.Students in Overseas Degree Programs U.
Students in Overseas Degree Programs: Key Destinations and Fields of Study presents findings from the first-ever survey on U.students pursuing full degrees abroad at the post-secondary level, their specific level of study, and their chosen field of study.Uncounted and Unacknowledged The crisis in Syria continues to have a devastating impact on professors, university students, and the education sector, not only in Syria but also in the neighboring countries that are hosting so many displaced Syrians.
Valuing Study Abroad Valuing Study Abroad: The Global Mandate for Higher Education presents the remarks that Scott Freidheim, the Chief Executive Officer, Europe, for Investcorp International, and member of IIE’s Board of Trustees, hosted at the British Academy’s International Conference in London in March 2012.We Will Stop Here and Go No Further The crisis in Syria continues to have a devastating impact on professors, university students, and the education sector, not only in Syria but also in the neighboring countries that are hosting so many displaced Syrians.Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education (2011) Weaving Success centers on nine countries whose universities received support from the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa: Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.WeTech Impact Report Since its launch in 2013, the WeTech Seed Fund for Women + Girls in Computer Science in Africa has been a gateway for young African women to begin their careers in Information and Communications Technology (ICT).What International Students Think About U.
Higher Education This revised and expanded IIE report examines the attitudes and perceptions that international students who are considering studying in the United States have of U.higher education and other key study destinations around the world.What Will it Take to Double Study Abroad? Generation Study Abroad is a five-year initiative that seeks to double the number of U.
students studying abroad through credit or non-credit programs What to Expect in College Photo by Carolyn Lagattuta.We want you to be successful! Read the information carefully to learn researched-based academic strategies that will help you be a prepared student.
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Steps to you need to know! In most instances, people experience greater success when they know what to expect.
In college, expect to find the following: Varying Class Sizes Class size varies depending on the course.
While most classes have fewer than 40 students, larger introductory classes may have anywhere from 15-400 students These allow automatic reproduction of all information represented digitally as text. If you compare a work printed for visual readers and the Braille version of it, you will recognize the huge difference in size. In Braille, a line may only hold around 25 to 55 letters and a page about 25 to 30 lines, while on a standard 11 point .While most classes have fewer than 40 students, larger introductory classes may have anywhere from 15-400 students.
Intro classes tend to have large class sizes while upper-division classes are smaller.The Need for Critical Thinking Skills In college you will be expected to understand and remember what you read Higher Education report, this year we have included two case-studies on particularly Integration of international academic staff and students For now, the USA remains the most popular country for international students, followed by the UK,. Germany, France and Australia, with half of all international students pursuing .The Need for Critical Thinking Skills In college you will be expected to understand and remember what you read.You will also be asked to draw conclusions, form opinions, and evaluate the ideas of others.Strong Emphasis on Tests and Less Busywork Students who succeed do their assignments and keep up with their reading.
The Need for Personal Responsibility In college, you have a tremendous amount of freedom.No one is checking to see if you are going to class, and no one knows whether or not you’re doing your assignments.You are responsible for your own academic progress.Consequences UCSC has academic standards that students must meet in order to stay enrolled.
Students may be placed on academic probation if their grades fall below a certain point.Students on probation must bring their grades up by a specified time.If they don’t, they are withdrawn from the university.Less Time in Class and More Emphasis on Independent Study In college, you are expected to do most of your learning on your own.The general rule is: For every one hour you spend in class, you should spend two hours out of class reading, studying, and completing assignments.
21-- Turn in final draft Instructors will give students a course syllabus listing all of their assignments and their due dates.Having a syllabus is very helpful because you can see exactly what is expected of you for the entire quarter.Whenever you’re given a syllabus, immediately copy the assignments into your assignment notebook or planner.Also, make note of all major exams (mid-terms, finals) and note time and location.
Three-ring binders work well because you can easily insert handouts, and if you ever miss a class, you can copy someone else’s notes and insert them where they belong.Purchase a small three-hole puncher so that you can insert handouts into your binder as soon as you get them.Keep important information (your instructor’s office hours, the course syllabus, etc.Keep returned papers, quizzes, and tests.Keep all of your returned papers, quizzes, and tests in the same binder with your lecture notes.Old quizzes and tests can help you study for future tests; they can also come in handy if there is ever a question about your grade.Keep a record of all your grades for each class.Keeping a record of your grades eliminates surprises at the end of the term.
If you are ever unsure as to how you are doing in a class, talk to your instructor.Make sure that you have a phone number or e-mail address of at least one person in each class.If you are absent, you will have someone you can contact to find out what you missed.Phone numbers and e-mail addresses are also helpful when you have a question about an assignment or an upcoming test.
Maintain a neat and organized study space.Set up a desk or study area so that it has everything you need.Keep this area neat and organized so that materials can be easily located.Before you go to bed, gather everything you’ll need for the following day, and put everything else back in its place.If there’s anything you need to remember to do, write yourself a note so you won’t forget.
STEP THREE: MANAGE YOUR TIME WELL Time management is important for all college students.It is, however, particularly important for students who have other commitments (a job, sports, etc.The first step in time management is to look at your life in order to make sure that you’re not overextended.
If you feel that you are doing more than you can handle, look for ways to make your life more manageable, and try to make some changes.Take a look at what you need to do, think about how you can get it done most efficiently, and then write out a plan.(Don’t plan out more than three days at a time).
Revise your plans as needed, and check things off as you accomplish them.
Being organized is a tremendous time saver.When you’re organized, you know what you have to do, and you have the information and materials that you need.Consciously make choices about how you will use your time.
For example, decide to limit yourself to one hour of TV or socializing on weeknights.Also look for ways to streamline and combine tasks (studying while you’re doing your laundry, get your exercise by jogging to the library, etc.See You’ll be more happy and successful in college if you follow these tips.Learn how to adapt to different instructors.
One instructor may encourage discussions and the open exchange of ideas; another instructor may expect students to listen to the lecture and to take notes.Part of your education is to learn how to adapt to different personalities, teaching styles, and expectations.You’ll get much more out of your classes if you have your assignments completed before you go to class.Lectures will be easier to follow; you’ll be able to understand class discussions, etc.
As soon as each class begins, focus on the presentation or lecture.Of course, to be physically and mentally alert, you need to eat right, exercise, and get enough sleep.Sit in the front of class whenever possible.It’s easier to pay attention when you sit in the front of classrooms.With the rest of the class behind you, there are fewer distractions and it’s easier to hear the instructor.
It’s also easier to ask questions and easier to see the board, television, and overheads.If you can choose your seat, sit up front.If you’ve been assigned a seat in the back of the classroom, ask your instructor if it would be possible for you to move to the front.Most instructors will give you their phone numbers, e-mail address, and/or office hours at the beginning of the quarter.
Do not hesitate to contact an instructor whenever you have a concern, problem, or question.For example, if you have a paper to write and you’re having a difficult time determining how to approach the subject, talk to your instructor.While most instructors will be happy to help you, you must initiate the contact.You should, of course, respect your instructors’ privacy and personal time; talk to them after class, call or see them during their office hours, or send an e-mail.Whenever possible, arrive early to class.You’ll be more relaxed, and you can use the time to look over your notes, and/or speak with your instructor.When you are late to a class, you miss announcements and introductory remarks.
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Your tardiness also tells your instructor that being on time to his/her class is not a priority for you.Instructors often summarize the lecture and/or discuss assignments during the last 5-10 minutes of class.
It is therefore important not to leave class early Continuing Education. The University of Exeter regrets that it has taken the decision to pause the delivery of our Continuing Education short courses programme. To date these courses have been very successful, last year nearly 1,000 people took courses ranging from archaeology through Egyptian studies to digital .It is therefore important not to leave class early.
If you must leave early, tell your instructor before class starts.Whenever there are discussions, projects, or labs, it is important to be an active and willing participant.The class will be more enjoyable and you’ll learn more APS Ethics Education Task Force has put together this collection of case studies to provide an introduction to some of the actions (or proposed actions) to the standards of science. Suggestion: These situations can include, for example, the use of university resources, telephone numbers, e-mail or web addresses to .
The class will be more enjoyable and you’ll learn more.
When you participate in class, you show your instructor that you know the material and that you’re interested in the course abaleatherdoctor.com/homework/ecology.php.When you participate in class, you show your instructor that you know the material and that you’re interested in the course.The number one reason people get fired from their jobs is because they cannot get along with their coworkers.It is therefore not surprising that businesses and industries encourage educators to teach students how to work together in small groups.Here are a few things to remember when you have to do a group project: Do your share of the work and do it well.
Accept that everyone is different and be open to new ideas.Have a positive attitude, and support the other group members.STEP FIVE: TAKE GOOD NOTES Tests usually cover material that the instructor has presented in class.It is therefore important to have good classroom notes from which to study.
In order to take good notes you must be an active listener.When you are actively listening in class, you don’t just hear the words the instructor is saying, you are also thinking about and trying to understand the information that is being presented.You can think faster than anyone can talk.This is one of the reasons that your mind sometimes wanders when you’re listening to lectures.
When you take notes, however, your mind has something to focus on, and you don’t have time to think about anything else.Taking notes therefore helps you pay attention and to stay focused.You often hear a change in your instructor’s voice when s/he says something that is important for you to know.Instructors often speak louder, speak slower, or they give verbal cues like “the most significant outcome,” “the main point,” “the most important reason,” “the three causes,” etc.
Anything your instructor takes the time to write on the board or overhead should be considered very important.Double-underline or put a star beside this information (or any information that’s very important) so that you’ll know to give it special attention when you’re studying later.While the information is still fresh in your mind, go over your notes.Clarify anything that was confusing, and make sure that you have key words written in the margins of your notes.
You might also want to highlight important points.Of course, while you are going over your notes, you are also fixing this information in your memory.If you are serious about learning, completely rewrite your notes.Eliminate unimportant information, and rewrite the rest of your notes using your words.Your notes will be clearer, and as you rewrite them, you will also be learning the material.
This is time consuming, but it pays off.Get the lecture notes if you are absent.When you miss a class, it is your responsibility to find out what you missed.Be sure to get copies of the class notes and handouts as soon as possible.The Cornell Note-Taking System Developed forty years ago at Cornell University, this system will keep your notes neat, complete, and well-organized, especially in math and sciences.
It will also save you time when studying for exams.Draw a vertical line down the paper to divide the left hand CUE column (2 inches), and the right hand LECTURE NOTES.Save the bottom 2 inches of the paper for SUMMARY space.During class record information only in the LECTURE NOTES area, and only on the front side of the paper.Ask questions in class or get clarification during instructors’ office hours.Within 24 hours review and recite from the notes.Use the CUE column to write study questions, key terms, or theorems, etc.In the SUMMARY space, reduce your page of notes into a one or two sentence summary or mnemonic trick.Remove notepapers from binder and spread them on a table in sequential order.Line them up so you can see only the CUE columns.STEP SIX: HOW TO READ A TEXTBOOK When you know how to read a textbook, you are able to comprehend and remember what you read.Textbook authors have already done a lot of your work for you.
They’ve inserted boldface subtitles that tell you exactly what you are going to be reading.They’ve put all of the important words in bold or italic print, and they’ve added pictures, charts, graphs, lists of vocabulary words, summaries, and review questions.The textbook authors have done all of this to make it easier for you to learn and retain information.In this section, you will discover how to use these “learning tools”.You will also learn how to 1) Scan, 2) Read, and 3) Review.
Once you understand how to scan, read, and review, you’ll be able to comprehend and remember what you read in a textbook the first time through.Scan Scanning gives you a quick overview of the materials you’re going to read.To scan, read the title, the subtitles, and everything in bold and italic print.Look at all of the pictures, graphs, charts, and read the introduction, the review questions, and the summary.
Scanning provides you with a great deal of information in a very short amount of time.
In addition to providing you with an excellent overview of the text, scanning also provides you with a kind of “information framework”.Having this framework of main ideas, vocabulary words, etc.makes it easier for you to read and understand the more detailed information.Read When your reading has a purpose, your comprehension improves, it’s easier to stay focused, and you can identify important information.To give your reading a purpose, try turning each boldface subtitle into a question.
Keep your question in mind as you continue to read.At the end of each section, see if you can answer it.Your question gives you something specific to look for, and helps keep your mind from wandering.Therefore, you can remember more of what you read.Before you start to read a section, look to see if there are any vocabulary words, names, places, or events in bold or italic print, and then ask yourself, “Why is this word, person, place, or event important?” You should, of course, have an answer to that question when you finish reading the section.
Review Most students, after having scanned and read the material, will say, “I’m done,” and then they will close their book.Taking a few extra minutes for review, however, will make a huge difference in what you are able to remember later.When you review, you lock the information into your brain before it has a chance to evaporate.
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To review, go back to the beginning and go through the same process you did when you scanned the material.This time, as you read the boldface subtitles, briefly restate the purpose of the point of the section to yourself using your own words.
As you look at the vocabulary word and the words in bold or italic print, think about what they mean and why they are significant Inclusive Language Education and Digital Technology.As you look at the vocabulary word and the words in bold or italic print, think about what they mean and why they are significant.
If you really want to lock the information into your brain, review everything again a day or two later.When you sit down to study for the test, you’ll be amazed at how well you already know the material 24 Oct 2014 - Students are graded on a scale of 1 to 4—with 2.5 considered “proficient”—and those numbers are converted into letter grades for their transcripts. allows students to earn credit for workplace experiences that reinforce their academic studies, such as interning at a dentist's office or the local radio station..When you sit down to study for the test, you’ll be amazed at how well you already know the material.While it may take a little practice to get the scan, read, review process down, you’ll soon realize that this process does not mean more work.It just means better comprehension, better retention, and academic success.
Find a good place to study Although it’s usually best to have one place to study regularly, it doesn’t matter where you study as long as the area is well-lit and comfortable and there’s a surface for writing abaleatherdoctor.com/laboratory-report/best-websites-to-order-astronomy-laboratory-report-9-days-asa-double-spaced-without-plagiarism.Find a good place to study Although it’s usually best to have one place to study regularly, it doesn’t matter where you study as long as the area is well-lit and comfortable and there’s a surface for writing.Before you start to study, figure out how to avoid or eliminate anything that could interrupt your concentration (loud music, telephone calls, the TV, etc.) Some students need silence when they study; others can study with music playing.If you like to listen to music when you study, consider listening to classical music.Research has shown that classical music can actually improve your concentration.
Get Started The hardest part about studying is getting started.Don’t put your studying off until later, don’t make excuses, and don’t wait until you’re “in the mood”.Begin with something simple or a subject that you like, and just get started.Think about how you learn and adjust how you study accordingly.
Know your learning style establish personal connections As a general rule, the more senses you involve and the wider variety of methods you use while studying, the more you remember.William Glasser, author and expert in the field of education, says that, “Students learn 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear, 70% of what is discussed with others, 80% of what they experience personally, and 95% of what they teach to someone else.” Organize your study time Before you start to study, make a plan.Decide exactly what you want to get done and the order in which you’ll do it.If you have a lot to do, prioritize your work to make sure you have enough time for the things that are most important.If you have something to memorize, work on that first, and then go over it again at the end of your study session.Always allow more time than you think you’ll need.Study your least favorite subject first to get it out of the way.Alternate types of assignments (read English, do math, etc.
Research has shown that students learn most during the first 20 minutes and 10 minutes of any study session.Try studying for 20 minutes then taking a short break (get a drink, get up to stretch, etc.Know how to study for tests From the beginning of the term, study a little everyday.Test questions most often come from material that was presented in class; therefore, it is important to study your class notes as well as the text.
For essay tests, it’s more important to understand the big picture and to know the main points and key facts.
For fill-in-the-blank and multiple-choice tests, you need to know more detailed information.Pay particularly close attention during the class before a test.Instructors often use this time to go over information that’s going to be on the test.Ask questions when you don’t understand something in class or in section.It saves time and increases your understanding.If an instructor gives you a review sheet or study guide, study it until you know everything on it; then use it to come up with questions that you think will be on the test.Have all the required readings done before you start to study for the test.If your textbook has review questions at the end of the chapters, go over them and be sure that you know the answers.Try teaching the material to yourself or someone else.
Form a study group, take turns leading a review of the important concepts, ideas, formulas, etc.Ask each other questions, share notes, and/or go over difficult material.When studying for an exam, go over old tests and quizzes.Know how to remember information Use flash cards to memorize vocabulary words, facts, and lists.Write down what you want to memorize and concentrate on it.
Close your eyes and try to see it in your mind.For example, if you write out what you want to remember, and at the same time, say it out loud, you are simultaneously hearing it, seeing it, and physically involved in the writing of it.Draw diagrams, graphs, and pictures; make outlines, lists, and charts.Right before you go to sleep, go over any information that you want to remember.Your brain will process this information and commit it to memory while you sleep.Use the first letter of words you want to remember.
For example, HOMES can help you remember the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).Look for a logical or an easy connection.For example, to help yourself remember that Homer wrote the Odyssey, just think to yourself, “Homer is an odd name.” Use silly associations and ridiculous visual images to help trigger your memory.When you are reviewing, you move information from your short-term memory into your long-term memory.Teaching to others the material you are learning, is an extremely effective method of retaining information.Know how to write a paper The key to writing a paper is to have enough time to plan, write, and revise it.Writing a paper should be a process, not a one-time event.
Writing tutors are available at various colleges, as well as at the Learning Center.If you have a choice, choose a topic that you want to learn more about, a topic that is not too broad, and one that you already know something about.Once you have your topic, gather information, brainstorm, and when appropriate, take a position.Make an outline, and then write a rough draft.Rewrite your paper until you have it just the way you want it, and then write the final draft.
It’s important that you put your paper away once or twice during this process.When you take it out and reread it, you’ll see and hear things that you didn’t notice earlier; it will seem like you’re reading it for the first time.Before you write your final draft, have someone else read your paper to make corrections or suggestions.To write a good paper, you need to: Follow the directions exactly.If you have difficulty writing papers, go to your college’s writing tutor.Use tricks when making a presentation or speech Use props whenever possible.
Props, such as posters, pictures, books, or sorting equipment, give you something to look at and something to do with your hands.
You can also put notes on the back of them.
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When you give a presentation or speech, pretend that you are telling your best friend something really important.Effective speakers make eye contact with those in their audience.If you find this difficult to do, look at their foreheads instead U.S. Study Abroad in Thailand highlights the current landscape and opportunities for expanding U.S. study abroad in Thailand, and addresses diverse concepts, and an experimental game that measured how voluntary tax compliance—a standard measure of government within the academic literature—was affected by .If you find this difficult to do, look at their foreheads instead.
Additional Study Resources STEP EIGHT: USE TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES In order to do well on any test or exam, you must study hard and be prepared.
Having done that, you can further improve your test performance by using these test-taking strategies.Get off to a good start Arrive early for a test Should i get custom writing assistance education case study Platinum College Editing US Letter Size.Get off to a good start Arrive early for a test.As soon as you get the exam, write anything you want to remember in light pencil at the top of your paper how to get writing services engineering report British Standard 24 hours.As soon as you get the exam, write anything you want to remember in light pencil at the top of your paper.Read or listen to all instructions carefully.
Develop a plan Before you begin, look over the entire test and develop a plan.For example, if the test has 25 multiple choice questions and 2 essay questions, you might plan 15 minutes for the multiple-choice section and 15 minutes for each essay question.Allow yourself time to go over the test.Mark questions that you want to review After you have gone through all of the questions, go back to the ones you’ve marked and try them again.When you’re not sure about an answer, go with your first instinct.
Don’t panic if you don’t know the answers to the first few questions.Sometimes it takes a few minutes for your brain to get in gear.Chances are you’ll know the answers when you come back to them.Increase your odds on multiple-choice questions When you’re reading a multiple-choice question, try to come up with the answer in your head before you look at the choices.There will probably be a couple that sound like they could be correct; don't be tempted to mark the first one that sounds good.If you’re not sure, eliminate the choices you know are incorrect.If two of the choices are similar or opposite, probably one of them is the correct answer.Know how to approach essay questions Read each essay question and then start with the easiest one.
This will help you gain confidence, and it will give you time to think about how to answer the harder question.Be sure to note how many points each essay is worth and adjust the time you allot to each question accordingly.Jot down key words, ideas, and the points that you want to cover in your answer.If you have time, organize these ideas/points into a simple outline, if not, just number them in the order you want to present them.
Begin writing, making sure that you answer the question that’s been asked.Write legibly, and use clear, concise, complete sentences.In your opening paragraph, introduce your topic and tell the reader what s/he can expect to learn from your essay.In the middle paragraphs, present examples, details, evidence, and facts to support the points you are making.In the final paragraph, summarize the main points, your analysis, etc.
Finally, reread your answer and make necessary corrections.If you don’t know the answer to an essay question, take a couple of minutes to write what you can about the subject.You might hit on something and get partial credit.If you run out of time, write a note explaining that you ran out of time and list key points that you would have covered.Be prepared for open book tests During an open book test, you must be able to locate information quickly.
Put self-stick notes or bookmarks in your textbook to help you find specific information.Go through your notes and highlight important information.Also write down all of the information you know you’ll need on one sheet of paper.Improve your math test scores As soon as you get your test write down formulas, equations, etc., that you might need to remember or use.
Before you start solving a problem, try to estimate what the answer will be.Don’t spend too much time on one problem; come back to it if necessary.Check your answers Check all of your answers, even the ones you know are correct.You may have read the question wrong or made a careless mistake.If you’re unsure, don’t change your answer.Use all of your testing time to answer questions and to check your responses.Review returned tests When your test is returned to you, go over each question you missed and, if possible, write in the correct answer.
You may see one or more of these types of questions on your final exam.Also check to make sure your test was graded correctly (mistakes happen).Keep a record of your test scores, and keep all of your returned tests in a file or folder.STEP NINE: REDUCE TEST ANXIETY While a little anxiety before a test improves concentration and alertness, excessive worry, or test anxiety, will lower one’s scores.It’s possible for students with test anxiety to get themselves so worked up that they can’t think clearly.
The brain is like a computer in that it contains a great deal of information.This information is useless, however, if you’re not able to access it when you need it.Having test anxiety is like having the password to your computer.The information is there, but you can’t access it.To reduce test anxiety, study enough to feel confident that you know the material.
Then try to replace the worry and negative thinking with thoughts that are positive and relaxing.Some of the following suggestions will help you.The night before a test, review the material and get a good night’s sleep.Mentally practice going through the test taking experience.Close your eyes and see yourself walking confidently into the test, answering the questions correctly, and receiving the grade you want.Walk into the test with your head high and your shoulders back.How you walk can affect how you feel, and if you act confident, you just may feel more confident.Try these common relaxation techniques: Take a deep breath, hold it, and then slowly release your breath along with the tension.
Start at the top of your head, flexing and then relaxing each part of your body.Close your eyes and visualize warm sunshine washing over you, melting away all the tension and relaxing all of your muscles.Close your eyes and let your arms hang down at your sides.As you relax, visualize the tension from your head, neck, and shoulders flowing down your arms and out your fingertips.Think of where you feel very relaxed and calm.
Close your eyes and visualize being in that place.
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Here is some advice for developing strong relationships with your professors: Introduce Yourself!!! Go to office hours! Don’t be shy! They set aside time for their students to come talk to them and they do not like spending that time alone at their desks.Take advantage of the chance to meet one on one with your professor.Professors love to talk to their students outside the classroom! A good time to make contact with your professor is right before or right after a paper or problem set is due in a course 8 Jul 2017 - Befriending Professors (And Earning Letters of Recommendation) In most instances, people experience greater success when they know what to expect. In college, expect to find the following: Varying Class Sizes UCSC has academic standards that students must meet in order to stay enrolled..Professors love to talk to their students outside the classroom! A good time to make contact with your professor is right before or right after a paper or problem set is due in a course.
You’ll have specific questions to ask and a topic to discuss at this time.
It is also fine to just pop in and say hi! A one on one conversation will help your professor learn your name early on in the quarter.It will also help you get a sense for your professor’s personality and interests .It will also help you get a sense for your professor’s personality and interests.Be inquisitive Take Advantage of E-mail You can write to a professor at one in the morning and not worry about disturbing him/her outside of their office hours.Also, e-mails have the advantage of allowing you to organize your thoughts before expressing them, which our busy professors appreciate.Letters of Recommendation If a professor knows you by name and remembers you favorably, you can expect an excellent letter of recommendation.
It is a great compliment to a professor to hear a student say, “I really enjoyed your course.Would you please write a letter for me?”.Make sure to send a thank you card soon after your request.It is common courtesy and will also remind the professor to write the letter.
What Happens When Students Control Their Own Education? When a New Hampshire district found itself struggling with low test scores and high turnover, it made a radical decision: Flip the traditional model and let kids take over the classrooms.Teacher Jenny Wellington (bottom) sits apart from her students, taking notes on their self-led discussion.Emily Richmond Most Popular Text Size In an 11th-grade English class at Pittsfield Middle High School in rural New Hampshire, Jenny Wellington’s students were gathered in a circle debating Henry David Thoreau’s positions on personal responsibility.“Do you think Thoreau really was about ‘every man for himself?'” asked one 16-year-old boy.
“He lived alone in the woods and didn’t want to pay taxes,” another student shots back.
” Sitting off to the side, Wellington took rapid notes.When she noticed the conversation being dominated by a couple of voices, she politely suggested someone else chime in.Otherwise, she stayed out of the way and let the discussion take shape.Welcome to student-centered learning at Pittsfield, a grade 7–12 campus in its third year of an innovative approach to education.
“There used to be a lot more of teachers talking at you—it didn’t matter if you were ready to move on.When the teacher was done with the topic that was it,” said Noah Manteau, a senior this year at Pittsfield.” Educators, researchers, and policymakers at the state and national level are keeping close tabs on Pittsfield, which has become an incubator for a critical experiment in school reform.The goal: a stronger connection between academic learning and the kind of real-world experience that advocates say can translate into postsecondary success.
Pittsfield, a former mill town, has about 4,500 predominately white residents, and the Middle High School serves about 260 residents.Fifty-six percent of them qualify for free or reduced-price meals.Student-centered learning is fully in place in the high school, and elements of it are being phased in at the middle-school level.The long-term plan is to eventually add it to the nearby elementary school.Pittsfield’s superintendent, John Freeman, is among the first to acknowledge that adopting student-centered learning was a bold move.
Student performance on statewide assessments has long been uneven, and teachers and administrators know there is still significant work to be done.But test scores are just one indicator, and based on multiple other measures, including higher graduation and college-going rates, Freeman feels confident that student-centered learning is moving Pittsfield in the right direction.“There used to be a lot more of teachers talking at you.” At Pittsfield, student-led discussions, small-group work, and individual projects dominate.
The traditional grading system has been replaced with a matrix of “competencies,” detailing the skills and knowledge students are expected to master in each class.Students are graded on a scale of 1 to 4—with 2.5 considered “proficient”—and those numbers are converted into letter grades for their transcripts.Teachers meet at regular intervals to review how closely their instruction is aligning with the competencies; they use an online database to continually track individual student growth.Additional online classes allow students to further challenge themselves and earn college credit.
Family engagement is considered a key part of each student’s progress.And the Extended Learning Opportunities (ELO) program allows students to earn credit for workplace experiences that reinforce their academic studies, such as interning at a dentist’s office or the local radio station.All of this means students are shouldering more responsibility for their own learning.And they are expected to develop the kind of critical thinking skills—not just rote knowledge—required for "real world" success.As a result, advocates of student-centered learning say it provides superior preparation for both college and career.
As senior Ryan Marquis put it, “I had to switch from ‘Here’s your study guide and here’s your answer sheet’ to ‘How do you want to learn the content, and how can we support you?’” * * * Student-centered learning in Pittsfield—located in the Suncook Valley about 40 minutes north of Manchester—began to take shape in 2008, when the district asked for community input on ways to improve local schools and found overwhelming support for more personalized approaches.The following year, Pittsfield's high school was rated one of the state’s lowest-performing, based on students’ standardized test scores.The one benefit of that dismal ranking was that it later qualified Pittsfield for a $1 million federal School Improvement Grant (SIG).This set in motion intensive public-private partnerships, and the creation of a community working group to help come up with a new instructional approach.After extensive research, planning, and conversations with parents, the district opted for the student-centered learning model, and the plan was implemented in January 2012.
“People in our community wanted schools to be places where students’ passions and interests were recognized, and their deficits and weaknesses addressed,” said Freeman.“We’re thinking not just about what happens within these walls, but preparing them for success at least seven years beyond high school graduation.” Around the same time, the district was considering how to implement New Hampshire’s mandate that high schools use a competency-based model, rather than traditional seat-time hours, to award course credit.New Hampshire had also adopted the Common Core State Standards, which set grade-level expectations for what students know and can do, but do not dictate classroom instruction.“They all get feedback from me every time, after every discussion.
That’s hard data for them, and they love it.” Rather than becoming competing forces, this unique combination of circumstances provided Pittsfield with enviable synergies, education experts say.“One of the downfalls of personalized learning has often been a regression to the lowest standard,” said Sonja Santelises, vice president of K-12 policy and practice for the Washington, D.The confluence of the Common Core, high school competencies, and student-centered learning in Pittsfield, said Santelises, offered “a rare opportunity” to set high expectations for learning that are supported by a rigorous and innovative instructional framework.At the same time, she added, the community’s buy-in has been critical, particularly during the earliest planning stages.Accountability must also be a top priority, Santelises said: Teachers should be continually checking students’ progress against the standards and adjusting instruction accordingly.“These are not just nice things to have—they’re absolutely essential to have if you’re going to bring about meaningful change,” Santelises said.
While it’s gaining momentum nationally, the definition is still evolving.The term is sometimes used—incorrectly, say the model’s advocates—to describe any kind of free-form learning that is not “teacher centered.” The New England-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation defines the model as personalized instruction that allows students to advance at their own rate, with opportunities for “anywhere, anytime” learning outside the confines of the traditional school day and building.Students must also have input in determining how they will learn, choosing among opportunities such as online classes and independent study.Project-based learning, in which students build connections between the academic course content and their own interests and career goals, is another popular route.
According to Rebecca Wolfe, director of the nonprofit Jobs For the Future’s Students at the Center project, student-centered learning shares the Common Core’s underlying goal: helping students develop their critical thinking skills while better preparing them for the real-world challenges of college and career.“They are absolutely complementary—and should be part of the same whole—when done right,” Wolfe said.Student-centered learning is not without its critics.Some question the philosophical premise, while others worry about the potentially daunting logistical requirements.
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There are also concerns that student-centered learning can result in a chaotic classroom environment, and that some students won’t progress quickly enough to cover the required curriculum.
Learners who already trail their peers could be the most vulnerable.“The idea of ‘student-centered everything’ is one of those orthodoxies where it’s easy to fall off the end of the cliff,” said Robert Pondiscio, senior fellow and vice president for external affairs at the Thomas B Continuing Education College of Social Sciences and International nbsp.“The idea of ‘student-centered everything’ is one of those orthodoxies where it’s easy to fall off the end of the cliff,” said Robert Pondiscio, senior fellow and vice president for external affairs at the Thomas B.
“It works a lot better in the content areas than in skills-based instruction like reading comprehension, for example.
” As for letting students demonstrate proficiency by non-traditional means, Pondiscio said “as long as the projects are rigorous and challenging, I see no problem with allowing students to produce work product that interests and engages them—provided it’s aligned to the content expectations 4 Feb 2014 - Even if only one in two cover letters gets read, that's still a 50% chance that including one could help you, he explains. “It's an Knowing the company better also helps you decide on the right tone to use in your cover letter. Case study #1: Demonstrate an understanding of what the company needs.” As for letting students demonstrate proficiency by non-traditional means, Pondiscio said “as long as the projects are rigorous and challenging, I see no problem with allowing students to produce work product that interests and engages them—provided it’s aligned to the content expectations.” They are expected to develop the kind of critical thinking skills, required for real-world success 4 Feb 2014 - Even if only one in two cover letters gets read, that's still a 50% chance that including one could help you, he explains. “It's an Knowing the company better also helps you decide on the right tone to use in your cover letter. Case study #1: Demonstrate an understanding of what the company needs.” They are expected to develop the kind of critical thinking skills, required for real-world success.Recent research from the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education found the student-centered model is working in unexpected places, including urban high schools with high percentages of minority and low-income students.Consider a June 2014 study looking at student-centered learning in four northern California public high schools, all smaller, open-enrollment campuses.The Stanford researchers concluded that regular assessments were helping teachers better monitor student progress and adjust instruction accordingly.
Students were also finding ways to connect their learning to their own interests and the wider community outside of school.“Students in the study schools exhibited greater gains in achievement than their peers, had higher graduation rates, were better prepared for college, and showed greater persistence in college,” said Stanford University Professor and SCOPE Faculty Director Linda Darling-Hammond in a statement about the new research.“Student-centered learning proves to be especially beneficial to economically disadvantaged students and students whose parents have not attended college." At Pittsfield, the shift to student-led discussions was a fairly steep learning curve for everyone, including teacher Jenny Wellington.To build her lesson on Thoreau, Wellington first turned to the school’s “competencies,” which are drawn from the state’s Common Core standards.
For the 11th grade, that means students should be able to interpret the literature they read, and craft arguments using the text as evidence.Wellington uses a mix of student-led discussions, small group work, writing assignments and the occasional traditional test to measure the progress of the class.“I’m giving them a point of focus but I’m not telling them what to think,” Wellington said.“My role is to make sure they are following through with a thought or an idea and not just jumping around.Once they hit on something they have to go deeper—and find support for their position from the text.
” The students keep track of how often each of them contributes to the conversation, setting goals both for themselves and for the class overall.For the most part, Wellington remains on the sidelines, although she occasionally stops the conversation for an in-class writing assignment to give quieter students an extra moment to collect their thoughts and consider what they want to say.“When I have really strong student dominating the discussions, I’ll tell them privately to hang back a little,” Wellington said.“They all get feedback from me every time, after every discussion.That’s hard data for them, and they love it.
” There have been unexpected developments: When Wellington used a traditional multiple choice test to measure students’ grasp of the content at the end of a subject unit, many of them scored poorly on some of the basic facts of Thoreau’s biography.But their written responses to the essay portion of the test, asking them to explain and interpret transcendentalism, were a different kind of surprise.“They blew me out of the water,” Wellington said.“Their understanding was clearly deeper than just those facts.” In an age when Google’s search engine is as close as a cell phone, “I would question whether a student knowing the year Thoreau died is really essential,” said Robert Rothman, a senior fellow at the Alliance for Excellent Education, a Washington, D.
-based organization focused on high school transformation.“If students didn’t know that he lived in the 19th century, that might be problem.If you’re going to talk about transcendentalism you need to know facts about it, and about the people who espoused it, to provide evidence for your conclusions.” There are other education theorists who take this argument even further, insisting that there’s little need for much of the rote learning that takes place in public schools.
However, “there’s a danger of going from one extreme to another,” Rothman said.“Just testing students on basic facts doesn’t help students develop those deeper understanding and learning.And just having them show they can communicate and write longer essays without some basis in knowledge isn’t going to help them, either.” * * * Like many of the nation’s public schools, both large and small, Pittsfield must contend with a high-need student population and a post-recession struggle for adequate funding.
Until recently, those challenges were exacerbated by a culture of low expectations for students, say Pittsfield teachers.
In 2013, Pittsfield’s 11th graders had a proficiency rate of 61 percent for reading on the New England Common Assessment Program (NECAP) exam; the statewide average for reading was 77 percent.In math, Pittsfield’s proficiency rate of 36 percent was the same as the state average, but that’s almost double the 19 percent that the school reported for the 2008-09 school year.Until 2011, Pittsfield had been on upward trend for several years, but during the past two school years, scores have fallen.The district has also been challenged by system-wide instability.Pittsfield has a higher-than-average number of residential rental properties, which means it has more student turnover than many of the state’s other small towns, said Superintendent Freeman, who took the helm in 2008 after nine years as one of the district's principals.
Teacher turnover has also been high: Since 2011, about 60 percent of the teachers and administrators at the middle-high school have been replaced, in part because some staff members rejected the shift to student-centered learning.Freeman said the school has also taken a more aggressive approach to evaluating the performance and potential of non-tenured teachers.“To let go of the idea that I have to be center stage all the time has been incredibly freeing.” Test scores aside, Pittsfield has improved in key areas since it launched its student-led curriculum.
According to the National Student Clearinghouse, Pittsfield’s dropout rate in 2013 was 2.During the same three-year period, the graduation rate climbed to 80 percent from 75 percent.And the college-going rate jumped to 60 percent from 47 percent.
Laureen Avery of UCLA’s Center X also points out that the school is no longer in the bottom 5 percent of the state’s high schools.Avery is the lead evaluator of the school’s Investing in Innovation (i3) grant, a $5 million federal investment it shares with a network of 12 other New England campuses; the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the Rural School and Community Trust have each contributed an additional $500,000 to the group of schools, and Nellie Mae, located in Quincy, Mass., has awarded a separate $2 million grant to Pittsfield specifically to put student-centered learning into place.“I’ve never seen any school—big or little—pay such close attention to student data,” Avery said.“They have a really well-developed way of tracking progress.
Yes, Pittsfield is a unique, small school.But they’re succeeding with processes that could be transferrable to another campus.” Paul Leather, New Hampshire’s deputy education commissioner, emphasizes that a student-led program like Pittsfield’s could not have worked without strong leaders, supported teachers, and an engaged community.“You can have the best ideas in the world,” Leather said.“But ultimately, it all comes down to implementation.
” To that end, Freeman has worked hard to carve out time for professional development.He has also eliminated the principal position and instead installed two deans at the helm: one for curriculum and instruction and one for building management.That clear delineation of duties means the first dean can focus on supporting classroom teachers while the second deals with the day-to-day tasks involved in running the school.For Jenny Wellington, who has spent 12 years teaching—six in New York City public schools, two years at the University of New Hampshire, and four at Pittsfield—it’s still a daily challenge to manage everything student-centered learning requires.The academic, social and emotional needs of her Pittsfield students are not dissimilar to those of her former pupils in the Bronx, Wellington said.
But she says the changes at Pittsfield have made it easier for her to respond to those challenges.She regularly visits her colleagues’ classrooms, gleaning ideas about how to get students to steer their own learning and looking for opportunities for joint projects.This fall, for example, biology students will be expected to write a persuasive essay about the use of human stem cells in research—an essay that will also be evaluated by their English teacher.“I’ve learned to step back more and let the students lead,” Wellington said.“To let go of the idea that I have to be center stage all the time has been incredibly freeing.